Auto Parts Store Business Plan Sample - Executive Summary

Arbitrary list of popular lights - Summer Solstice 2020 edition

Happy Solstice!
In honor of Summer Solstice for the northern hemisphere, I've made an updated list of popular lights. Today is a couple days after (sorry!) the day you're least likely to need a flashlight north of the equator, but it increases every day after so it's a good time to buy a flashlight.
Because a definitive buyer's guide is too hard, I've made an arbitrary list of popular lights you should consider if you're shopping for a light. There is no best flashlight, so this is not the last word in what's good, but a list of lights that are often bought or recommended here with a touch of my own opinion thrown in. Exclusion from this list doesn't mean a light isn't good. To search more lights by their attributes, try
Where possible, official manufacturer URLs are linked here. Sometimes the manufacturer offers good deals through direct orders, sometimes vendors have the best prices. There are coupon codes available that apply to many of the lights listed. I'm hosting a version of this list on my own site with affiliate links because a few people have asked for a way to give me a kickback.
Shipping/availability may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, items shipped from China are often taking 2 months to arrive. Supply chains and warehouse stock also appear to be disrupted as well, so you may have to be more patient than usual if you want certain flashlights, chargers, and batteries.

For those in a hurry

If you don't want to learn much, just get one of these.

All of the lights in this section come with a rechargeable battery and have a charger built in to the light. The battery will be a standard size you can buy online from third parties, and the charger will use USB as its power source, though some options do use a special cable. Aside from the Catapult, all have very good color quality compared to the average LED flashlight, improving your ability to see details.
These are at the top of the list not because they're the best in some objective sense, but because they're easy to own and use, and easy to buy. They score well on most measure flashlight nerds care about while also being suitable for non-enthusiasts.

About specs and considerations

Moved to the wiki due to character limit

Mainstream lights

Everyday Carry Lights

These are selected for pocketability first and performance second, but most of the larger options are perfectly adequate for house/cacamping/etc... uses. This section excludes right-angle designs that double as headlamps, but many people do use those for pocket carry, so see that section as well.


AAA battery

AA battery

CR123A/16340 battery

18350 battery

18650 battery

This category is so popular it gets subcategories. If you're looking for a lot of power and runtime that's still possible to carry in most pants pockets, this is your battery.

Dual-switch lights

A tailswitch controls power, a sideswitch changes brightness. The ease of explaning the UI makes these perfect to hand out to others.

E-switch lights

Electronic switches enable shortcuts from off to useful modes - usually lowest, highest, and last-used.

Other by use case

Right-angle lights and headlamps

If I could have only one portable light, it would be a right-angle light that functions as both an everyday carry light and a headlamp. Some lights in this form factor also offer a magnetic tailcap, allowing them to act as mountable area lights.



All of these use one 18650 battery.


Duty lights

These are suitable for first responders and possibly members of the military in combat roles. The focus is on simple operation, reliability and a good way to make sure the light starts on high.

High-performance lights

Most lights on the list are easy to carry, with performance constrained by size and thermal mass as a result. After all, the best light is the one you have. Here are lights to bring when you know you'll be using them.


Turn night into day, but not necessarily very far away


What's that over there? WAY over there? The hotspots of these lights tend to be too focused for comfortable use up close, though using a diffuser is an option. These tend to be most useful for search and rescue, boating, and the like.
FL1 throw is the distance at which large objects can be detected in clear air. At half that distance, there's usually enough illumination to see clearly, though with more extreme throwers, the distances may be so great as to require binoculars to see clearly even during the day. Throwers have visible backscatter from the atmosphere even in clear air, which may obstruct the user's view of the target. Warmer color temperatures tend to have less.


Some throw, some flood... probably a lot

Other lights

Stuff that doesn't fit somewhere else goes here.

Enthusiast lights

Enthusiast lights can be subject to a bit of a flavor of the month phenomenon, and this section isn't necessarily going to try to include them all. What you'll find here are enthusiast lights with some staying power. There will probably be an Emisar D4 of some description this time next year, but not necessarily the latest new FW variant or whatever's currently trendy from Nightwatch.

Everyday carry

Jacket pocket, maybe


* BLF GT90 - the GT with a Luminus SBT-90.2 for over 7000 lumens and 2700m throw claimed, but that's going to be limited by heat and power. For sustainable performance, the original may have the advantage. For short bursts, this will be most impressive. 360, but look for discounts

Edit 20200624: added Tool AA, NU25, KR4, KR1
submitted by Zak to flashlight [link] [comments]

3.10 PTU All Feedback posts in one place

High-speed Combat Changes
We have made some initial changes to high speed combat to encourage combat at SCM speeds. When traveling above SCM speeds, your auto-gimbal slew rate will be reduced and the time it takes to lock missiles will be increased. These are our first step changes to encourage combatants to slow to SCM to use their ships most efficiently.
Test Scenarios
Questions we have:
As always, thanks for your input!
Ship HUD Updates
We have rebuilt our ship HUDs to use the new building blocks UI system ahead of further redesigning the look of the UI. This includes updates to the design of TVI (True Vector Indicator) and reworked center targeting UI. Note: This change is currently not for ground vehicles will come in a future update. Take out your favorite ship and use it in various scenarios and let us know what you think. Specifically, touch on these topics:
Thanks for your input!
Turret Overhaul
Turrets have undergone a slew of changes to increae their usability. Turrets now have a fixed assist system, using weapon convergence to nudge weapons toward the target, while still rewarding precise aim and area targeting. In addition, we added a modifier for how much the acceleration of a target is taken into account for PIP prediction. We now update the PIP purely on the velocity which gives us a much more stable firing solution and decreases the effects network jitter of juking behavior.
We have also made numerous updates to controls including adding a new binding map for turrets and new optional control tunings. VJoy style controls have been added and set to default (Keybind "Q" swaps between VJoy and relative mouse mode), Added ESP to turrets (Keybind "E" to enable/disable), Gyro Mode (Press "G" to enable/disable), customizable turret velocity limiter (LShift enables and W/S/Mousewheel to change limits), combined/staggered fire mode (Keybind "V" to Swap between), and holding down "C" will automatically re-center the turret.
Turret UI now shows specific status labels so that there is no uncertainty what the turret is doing including VJoy mode, turret rotation, gimbal borders, and aim quality. In addition, the UI has been given numerous symbols to indicate the position of the turret relative to the ship, the limits of its motion, and the quality of fixed assist action.
Please take a moment in free fight to familiarize yourself with those changes and to tweak setting to your liking. Afterward, crew up in the PU and give it a go, but be sure to give it time to learn and adjust to the changes.
Once you feel competent with the new setup and have settings you enjoy, share your thoughts and settings below. We are specifically looking for your thoughts on:
  • Your overall opinion. Do you feel more deadly in turrets? Are they easy and intuitive to control?
  • Keybindings
  • Look ahead and target tracking
  • Missing UI elements
For issues and bugs, please use the category tag "Turrets" on the issue council.
Looking forward to hearing from you!
Ship Gunnery
We have made a number of changes to ship gunnery and targeting which apply to turrets and ships. Most noticeably, ESP has been updated and now has customizable settings. In the main options menu "Game Settings", you can now set the trigger radius "Enhanced Stick Precision Zone Size" as well as the dampening value "Enhanced Stick Precision Damping Curvature". Note: These settings also exist for turrets.
We have also applied a small amount of fixed assist to fixed weapons on ships that use the weapon's convergence to slightly turn them towards active targets without hindering precise aim. In addition to removing acceleration calculation from pips to make them more stable, this should make fixed weapon aiming much more enjoyable.
For any bugs encountered for ESP, please use the issue council category tag "ESP". Give this a thorough test and let us know what you think. Focus on:
  • Are ESP changes noticeable?
  • What settings ended up working best for you?
  • Do you notice fixed assist?
Thanks for your input!
Ship Flight Changes
We have made a number of small, but noticeable, changes to how a ship behaves in normal flight. This includes the addition of jerk to both linear and rotational motion, which smooths the motion of ships as they recenter in both linear and rotational motion, but still allows fast counter motion. The goal of this addition is to smooth out jerky flight and rotation so ships feel smooth and fluid but still maneuverable and precise. We have also changed mixed thrust commands (ex. mixing up/forward/left) behave by treating the command as a blended vector of motion rather than a blend of thrust. The result is more predictable pathing behavior that blends each input command and no passive vector changing when the ship is drifting to a stop.
We are still experimenting with these values and very keen on hearing your thoughts. Specifically we want to know about:
  • Acceleration and maneuvering accessibility
  • If ships have smooth, predictable rotation
  • If inputs (mouse, joystick, gamepad) have smoother motion
  • If ship motion feels precise and predictable
Thanks for your feedback!
Aerodynamic Flight and Thruster Behavior
We have made some critical updates to atmospheric flight performance for all ships. Ships now have thruster efficiency curves, which drastically change the way thrusters work in differing atmospheres. In atmospheres our thrusters now lose efficiency in dense atmospheres and will require more upward thrust to counter the effects of gravity. In coupled flight, this is automatically done to stabilize the ship while in decoupled you will need to manually input gravity correction. In addition, thrusters are now more vulnerable to adverse conditions including wind, damage, and overheat.
Ships now also have individually simulated aerodynamics surfaces that contribute various little forces to the motion of the ship. The result is both much more realistic and a significantly more detailed simulation. Expect lots of subtle, unique flight characteristics per ship that give them a lot more character. Ships with wings are now able to stall, do level turns, and lose speed in tight turns, The aerodynamic interaction with wind is now more details and expect wind to push and pull on ships in more complex ways. Breakable parts now affect the aerodynamics, so break off a wing and the ship will not fly straight anymore.
We want to know what you think! Specifically, thoughts on:
  • General atmospheric flight in different density atmospheres
  • Atmospheric combat
  • Any ships that behave oddly or in unexpected ways in atmosphere (please describe in detail the expected behavior and the current)
  • Thruster behavior under wind
  • Thruster behavior when damaged
For any issues or bugs encountered, please create an issue council entry and use the category tag "Atmospheric Flight".
Thanks for your input!
New FPS Weapons, Electron Damage, and Body Dragging
We have added the following new weapons, all of which are available at Grim HEX:
  • LBCO Atzkav Sniper rifle
  • Lightning Bolt Co. Yubarev Electron Pistol
  • Gemini C54 Ballistic SMG
In addition, the first two weapons do a new kind of damage referred to as "Electron Damage".
Electron is a new damage type that consists of energy, distortion, and stun. When a target is hit with electron they become charged and if the target receives a secondary hit while charged it will create an electron detonation that can chain to nearby targets. The size of this detonation is dependent on the initial and subsequent damage values on the target.
We have also put in an initial feedback pass of body dragging. Although this feature doesn't have a lot of use cases just yet, the potential is huge and we wanted to get it into player's hands early to get feedback on its function.
Testing scenarios
  • Clear compound/Kareah missions
  • Star Marine
  • Drag some bodies
Feedback topic
  • Did you notice the stun effect on electron damage?
  • How was the balance of the new weapons?
  • Did body dragging operate smoothly?
Test these weapons out and let us know what you think! As always, add any bugs and issues you encounter to the issue council.
Citizen Trading App
We have added a new mobiGlas application, "mo.TRADER", which you can use to gift other players aUEC or merits (for prisoners). Look for the symbol on your mobiGlas (the mG has been slightly redone around this) then open the app. You will have the option to select from party members or contacts at the top, or search for a recipient (any recipient regardless of server or on/offline status), then select an amount, send, and accept.
Testing scenarios and feedback topics
  • Post mining/trading crew payments
  • Sending a friend gift aUEC
  • Any and all edge or extreme conditions, including exploits
  • Trading merits in prison
For any bugs, use the issue council tag "Player Trading App" and let us know any feedback you have below.
Ship Targeting UI and Functionality
We have completely overhauled the targeting UI and the targeting gameplay flow which includes:
  • New UI for the TVI, PIP, indicator, range indication, firing indication, assisted gimbals, and fixed gunsight.
  • New UI for targets including the return of orientation style brackets, orientation arrows, and motion ribbons many of which are able to be turned on or off in the game options.
  • New targeting and target selection flow
Unselected targets should no longer display markers around them. Automatic selection of "best" target based on your view cone, selection method is now a combination closest to center of cone, distance, and hostility. Once selected a target can be locked or pinned. Locked targets display additional targeting information (distance, ribbon trail, direction). Unlocked targets that move offscreen/outside the cone lose the selection and a new target is selected. Hostile, friendly, and all targets within the forward cone can be cycled as well. Locked targets that move offscreen/outside the cone retain their selection. Pinned targets are displayed to all members of the ship's channel. All states of lock/pin have different reticles to show they are different states.
With this new targeting system there are quite a few changes to keybinds and options. Players may want to familiarize themselves with the new options in the keybinds options menu. This includes but is not limited to: Lock focused target (Tap 1), Target nearest attacker (target who has you locked, Tap 2), Pin Currently Selected Target (Tap 3) , Cycling Pinned Targets Forward (Tap 4) and Back (Tap 5), Cycling Sub-Targets Forward (Tap 6) and Back (Tap 7), Resetting Sub-Target (Tap 8 ), and Removing all pinned targets (Tap 0). Players can also pin a target to a specific place on the pinned target list by holding ALT+# or having the setting enabled for "Tap To Lock, Hold to Pin".
Test scenarios
  • 1v1 engagements
  • Close range dogfighting
  • Long range initial engagements
  • Furballs (masses of enemies and allies)
  • Non-hostile contacts at all ranges
Key feedback points
  • Situational awareness
  • Target orientation and vector reading
  • Targeting flow (hostile, friendly)
  • Visibility (pip, targeting UI, trail, sight)
Let us know what you think below!
submitted by Rainwalker007 to starcitizen [link] [comments]

The 5 Guns: A Plea of Simplicity to New Shooters

5 Guns
I’ve made comments in the past asserting that the vast majority of all firearms activities can be done with just 5 different guns. I still stand by this. I believe that anyone, with a gun from each of these categories, can participate, in a meaningful way, in most gun-related things. Not necessarily at the highest level , and not every single discipline or subcategory. For example, having a Ruger 10/22 will gain you entry into a whole host of target shooting and competitive disciplines, but it won’t be good enough or even legal to shoot in Olympic smallbore- you’ll need something else. Your deer rifle with a Nikon Prostaff scope chambered in .270WIN might shoot 0.75 MOA at 200 yards and will allow you to compete, even well, in a PRS match, but you probably won’t beat the dude launching handloaded 6.5 Creedmoor pills out of their GA Precision rifle with a Nightforce scope. It also won’t be good enough to go hunt a coastal brown bear in Alaska- you’ll need something else for that. This isn’t to belittle inexpensive or general purpose gear. The opposite case is my thesis.
The 3 main categories of firearms-related activities generally are: defensive use, recreational use (collecting, competition, non-competitive target shooting), and hunting. I separate hunting from recreational use, even though almost all hunting is considered to be recreational in some way, since the gear is more practical and use-driven (food security is no laughing matter), as opposed to “just for fun” or novelty for its own sake. If there is a flaw in my viewpoint, perhaps that would be it- lets discuss in the comments. I think the only aspect of recreational use that isn’t really addressed by owning 5 general purpose guns is collecting. Modern, common, and/or inexpensive firearms are not necessarily collectible (almost by definition) and their use is focused around practicality instead of design novelty, rarity, historical provenance, etc. But competitive shooting, and recreational shooting can be entered into in a meaningful way with 5 guns.
This post means to show that while special purpose gear outclasses general purpose gear for those special purposes, for the average user, general purpose gear gets you so much performance and so much value, that you should focus on it over special gear, UNLESS A SPECIFIC and SPECIAL NEED arises from your experience that DICTATES A REQUIREMENT FOR SPECIAL GEAR. Most people do not shoot enough to warrant buying super niche items. Start with these 5, learn to shoot, learn and develop your own needs and interests, then branch off into technical la-la-land and transcend to full gun nerd.
Bottom Line 5 guns:
The Whys and Wherefores:
Defensive use can be separated into self-defense (defense of your own bodily person, no matter the location or scenario), home and family defense (defense of a static place of residence/work and the people there), and community defense, one of the more important missions here. This is really the most specific category and is most heavily scrutinized by the legal system, for obvious reasons. You will find some of the most experienced shooters alive (and dead) focus on defensive shooting. There are really only a small number of situations where defensive shootings can ethically and legally happen, clear and present threats against your life and/or body at close distance being a reasonable summary of those situations. There are extremely few justifiable defensive shootings that happen at distances greater than 100m and there are even fewer that happen in situations where you are not reacting to a specific threat. Shotguns, intermediate size rifles, and pistols are what are most widely recommended for defensive use and versions are included in our 5 guns.
Recreational use, for the purposes of my thesis, includes the most diverse set of disciplines, from the most casual backyard plinking, to extremely rigorous and intensive competitions like Olympic slow-fire pistol, to practical 2-gun action matches, and everything in between. Because of this diversity, these 5 guns will be the most deficient in this category, but, will allow any new shooter to, at minimum, start competitive shooting, in enough disciplines to begin to learn which ones you actually enjoy and pursue at a higher level. The fact is, many folks who like shooting skeet/trap/sporting clays with shotguns, often really have no interest in smallbore rifle competitions, and many of the folks who shoot long-range PRS matches may not enjoy shooting 3-gun. However, the 5 guns will let you do ANY of these, at least at the beginner level. Also, most folks who shoot, like to shoot for fun and like to shoot different stuff for fun. So while you may not like PRS, you still might want to hit the 600m KD range every once in a while and ring some steel with your bolt gun, just for fun, or to prepare for antelope season. That’s where the 5 guns shine- versatility.
Hunting is separated from recreational shooting since it shares an aspect serious and practical enough to be more co-related with defensive use than “fun” and that is food security. Animals are still the best single-origin source of protein widely available. A vegan or vegetarian diet of mixed beans actually surpasses the nutritional quality of meat, but you have to pay attention to what you eat and make sure the protein sources you ingest form a complete profile of amino acids and other nutrients in order to functionally replace meat in a diet. This is not hard in our agriculture-based society, but its also not as easy as many folks think. I highly admire folks who do it right- we need more folks like that. However, hunting provides a very practical way to secure relatively cheap protein that is free of the many ethical and health problems associated with capitalistic, industrial food production (including all plant farming). Hunting with firearms also offers a view into practical outdoor weapon skills that are not otherwise replicated except in a warzone. If you learn to shoot a rifle in hunting, you’ve learned at least some of what is important in an outdoor defensive scenario, or even combat (Shooting a bolt-action rifle from prone off of a backpack at a target 400m away is something shared by hunters and military snipers). Again, disciplines vary wildly, as does the weapon selection. Shotguns and rifles are the main players though, and since we have at least one of each of those in our 5 guns, we’re mostly covered.
I will try to include resources for more info and reinforcement where I can. Know that this is not exhaustive in scope, I am not a professional shooter or an expert in firearms engineering or usage. I shoot when I can, hunt a fair amount, and have done some junior-level competition shooting. Understand that almost everything you read on this post is a summary of what I have read and learned from actual experts and professionals and is not a synthesis of my own making. Most of the people and sources I will include are experts or professionals. Don’t focus on the fact that many of these people are chuds, conservatives, cops, or whatever. They shoot for a living and they are experts. Shooting as a skill has no morality or ideology. The lesson is more important than the teacher. Focus on what skills they are trying to convey instead of the shirts they wear, or their political viewpoints. The dangerous dearth of functional firearms knowledge in leftist communities necessitates sacrificing absolute purity for the sake of destroying ignorance, building both skill and a foundation of competence among our communities.
The Pistol: Location independent self-defense with a firearm pigeon holes you into pistols, concealed or not. It just isn’t practical or in some places, legal, to carry a rifle, shotgun, or rocket launcher on your person for the purpose of fending off meth zombies or other threats. Pistols also can be adequate home defense weapons, as well as really fun guns that have a huge assortment of competitive disciplines available. In other words, they are versatile and fill 2/3 of our categories. So that’s why you should get a pistol. What kind of pistol? Why do I recommend such a specific design like a striker-fired, polymer-framed, semi-automatic 9mm? Because currently, that is the most modern, most versatile, and most feature-rich pistol design available. It’s also the most competitive as far as designs, features, and cost go from a manufacturer standpoint. Revolvers and older semiauto designs DO have some advantages. Revolvers can be shot from inside pockets, they can chamber a much wider variety of cartridges. 1911s have essentially the best-designed trigger of any large-production handgun available, they also have excellent ergonomics. These advantages are not enough to outclass the many advantages that modern handguns have- higher ammo capacity, lighter weight, better reliability, simpler manual of arms, ubiquity, market support. A Glock 19 is very, very easy to learn how to manipulate, even if the trigger sucks compared to a Wilson Combat 1911. Its also ¼ of the price. If you buy a Glock 19 or similar pistol and leave it bone stock, you can enter almost all the same competitions you could with a revolver or 1911, you have a lighter gun that is easier to carry and provides more capability at a similar price point. 9mm is practically universal, is one of the cheapest available cartridges to shoot, is essentially as effective in performance as other major defensive handgun cartridges, and is smaller, allowing for higher capacity and lower recoil. Some resources FBI switches back to 9mm. Garand Thumb on pistols, Primary & Secondary talks handguns. /CCW
The AR: So if I can use a pistol for all defensive use, why an AR15 ? Aren’t those just redundancies at this point? Well yes, but actually no. The AR15 is effectively not concealable in any configuration that is useful as a long gun. So you can’t take it with you like a pistol. But, for a home defense weapon and as a community defensive weapon, it far outclasses pistols. So much so, that you’ll notice all militaries use rifles and not pistols as their main weapon (duh). Pistols are only used when you run out of ammo with a rifle and know you’re about to die being overrun, as a barely acceptable defensive stopgap to use in order to get to your rifle that isn’t currently with you, or if you can’t carry a rifle. If you expect to face rifle threats, or are able to bring a rifle legally and practically, bring a rifle. Its that simple. The terminal performance of rifles are excellent and at ranges that make them the most effective personal weapon ever devised in the history of humankind. We will not see rifles replaced in this role until phasers, blasters, gauss rifles, and rail guns become a real thing instead of science fiction. That’s why you need one. Why the AR15? Its combination of modularity, straight line design, lightweight cartridge, ubiquity, market support, price, and easy/simple manual of arms make it the best choice in the US for an all-purpose rifle. Why not AK, SKS? Good quality AKs and SKSs are no longer cheaper than good quality ARs, they are less adaptable to different roles, and have more complicated manual of arms. In other parts of the world, AKs still make a lot of sense, but with current import laws and supply in the US, ARs are now king. A 16” barrel AR with a midlength gas system is the sweet spot of performance and versatility- you get excellent velocity, reliability, a good degree of compactness, and light weight. This rifle can be used to great effect in any of our 3 categories- all manner of competitions, small to medium-sized game hunting, and defensive use. Close range to medium range, as well. It is highly versatile, perhaps the most versatile weapon you can possibly own, with the possible exception of a shotgun. There are many companies that make good ARs, I recommend a small number of those in a failed attempt at brevity. There is no need to spend $4000 on a rifle setup, and you also shouldn’t spend under $500. The point of diminishing returns is very real and since the whole idea of 5 guns is optimization, focus on that middle-tier. That’s where the bang for your buck is. A weapon light is absolutely essentially for defensive use, since you can’t shoot what you can’t see. Bad things usually happen at night, so a weapon-mounted light should be the first thing you buy for your AR. There are many companies, but few are highly regarded as good enough- the list I made is generally what is recommended by professional end users and instructors. Stick to it unless you get a specific recommendation otherwise from a trusted source, like an instructor. A quick-adjust 2-point sling is also essential. Its not only comfortable, but allows you to maintain control of your rifle while having one or both hands free. It makes it harder to drop, lose, or have your weapon taken away from you. Get one. One-point slings are faster, but retention is worse (getting whacked in your nether regions by a hot steel barrel is not fun, neither is hanging yourself on a fence with a rifle sling). Traditional 2-point shooting slings have good retention and are comfy, but are slow to shoot with. A quick-adjust 2-point is the best of both worlds. 2-point retention, almost 1-point speed. Get one. A red dot sight is preferable for a general use rifle over holographic sights, or magnified optics. A red dot gives you speed, low light use, is very easy to learn to shoot, and is much cheaper at similar levels of quality and reliability. With some training, you can effectively use a red dot to 300m or so. Holographic sights are faster, better for low light, and close range. But they are expensive and their battery life sucks. Low Power Variable Optics (like 1-4, 1-6x, etc) have begun to edge out red dots among professional end users in competitive, hunting, and military circles, but I recommend against them for one reason- cost vs quality. To get a good or excellent duty-grade red dot, you will spend $200-500. To get a good or excellent duty-grade LPVO, you will spend, minimum, $1000. A red dot will still allow you to do most of what an LPVO will do, for less than half the cost. A $250 red dot and $750 on ammo and range trips will beat a $1000 LPVO and no practice, every single time. Buy 6-10 Magpul Pmags to start off with. No, you don’t need that many mags for fighting off zombie hordes (maybe?). You DO need that many mags for efficient practice so you spend more time shooting instead of reloading the same 2 mags over and over again. Plus, mags break and fail and having replacements is essential. Pmags are the best because they are equally reliable as good metal mags, and they also fail in obvious ways (diagnostic advantage). If a Pmag breaks, it breaks visibly (feed lips break off, or the body cracks). When metal mags break, it may not be visible, since metal can deform to failure, but not visibly. That’s why Pmags are better. There is a reason why many professional end users set up their ARs in very similar ways to what I have explained- because it works. Check out the following: Travis Haley/GarandThumb, Larry Vickers, Milspec Mojo, Vigilance Elite, Ronin tactics
The gauge: A 12ga shotgun is the most terminally effective personal weapon widely available. Sure, you can spend $8000 on a Barrett or other anti-materiel rifle and get better performance at all ranges, but why do that when you can spend $300 to get the same punch at 50 meters and in? Also, with proper ammo selection, you can hunt pretty much any animal in North America with a shotgun, from small squirrels, quails, and doves, to turkeys, ducks, geese, deer, even moose! Not to mention the countless competition disciplines that utilize shotguns. It has no equal as far as versatility is concerned. Its also pretty cheap to buy. Most good quality pumps are under $500 and will provide a lifetime of shooting. The trick with shotgunning is that to maximize the versatility, you kind of need 2 barrels. If you choose a short barrel for defensive use and large game hunting, you essentially eliminate utility for fast and flying game or classic clay pigeon competition. If you pick a long barrel, you eliminate the former. Never fear, most major manufacturers offer kits that include 2 barrels- a short 18-20” barrel for defense and certain types of hunting, and a long 26-28” barrel with removable chokes for the flying stuff. Switching barrels is easy and allows for maximized use. Its worth chasing down one of these “Field/Security” combos. There are important shotgun upgrades to consider, particularly a weapon light for defense, Velcro shotgun cards for ammo storage, a sling, and 2-3 choke tubes. Buy the sling first, preferably the same quick-adjust 2-point that your AR has, for ease of training, then get the shotgun cards. The cards are nice because they are modular and can be removed easily when you don’t need them or for fast topping up of on-gun ammo. Finally, get choke tubes. Your gun will likely come with one or a set in the box. A variety of chokes gives a range of utility that complements ammo choice for what you’re shooting. A “Full” choke makes for tight patterns for longer range shooting, while “Modified” and “Improved” are intermediate constrictions between full and “Open” or “Cylinder”. Modified and Improved are generally considered to be the most versatile. Shotgun weapon lights are more difficult to remove for when you’re not using it as your primary defensive weapon, so forego it if you have an AR with a light already. If you buy the shotgun first, get the light. You’ll notice I haven’t said anything about pistol grip-only shotguns. Why? They suck. For Almost everything- don’t listen to me, see for yourself- InRangeTV, also, an in depth look at shotguns for defensive use-Primary and Secondary
The 22: The most popular firearms cartridge available worldwide. Its been around for close to 150 years, simply being one of the best things to happen to guns, ever. You should have one for a lot of reasons. Not really for defense- the 22 LR is not really effective in that role (usable, sure; effective, no). If you have these 5 guns, the 22 will not be your go-to weapon for defense. However, for target shooting, competition, training, and most small game hunting, there really isn’t a better weapon out there. The 22 LR simply rocks. Its super light, super easy to shoot, super cheap to shoot, you can shoot it at ranges where many other guns aren’t allowed, its legal almost everywhere, and its plain FUN. It’s a great gun for kids and new shooters to learn on since its not intimidating and provides all the essential aspects of firearms ownership and use. Get a semi-auto 22. Its better to train with, since you can learn positional shooting without breaking stance to work a manual repeating action and you have a speed advantage available when needed. Sure, some bolt-action 22s are more accurate, but again, unless you’re trying to get involved in precision-oriented smallbore shooting, the advantages of a semi-auto 22 outweigh bolt guns. Put a sling on it, buy a few extra magazines, and hit the range! From there, as you refine how you want to use your 22, consider upgrading your iron sights (Tech Sights, NoDak Spud sights), getting a red dot, or a magnified optic. Each of these enhances the rifle’s use potential in different areas. But mainly, shoot the thing! Rimfire Central is an excellent resource to learn about the ins and outs of all things 22 LR.
High Power Rifle: the big boy. This is the apex of the main trunk of the firearms development tree. Full-size rifles are incredibly useful tools. Their capability at medium to long range eclipses every other personal weapon that isn’t ordnance or crew-served. They are an ideal choice for hunting medium and large game, make for excellent competition weapons, and can be pressed into defensive roles. Other than the pump shotgun, this is the only other manually-operated action weapon I recommend owning amongst the 5 guns. The reason for this is, like the shotgun, a function of cost vs. quality. Yes, excellent, desirable full-power rifles exist in semi-auto. Yes, they have more utility than their bolt-action counterparts. They are also A LOT more expensive. Bolt-action rifles are robust, mature designs that provide strength, reliability, a high degree of precision, for low cost and low weight. To get a semi-auto gun that is as accurate as a bolt gun, you’re gonna have to spend a lot more money. You can get a bolt gun that will be effective to 1000 yards or more, is as reliable and lighter weight, and costs less than even your AR15. These rifles are not expensive to buy, but they are certainly the most expensive to shoot regularly of our 5 guns, their ammo being fairly pricey. However, their utility in hunting and recreational shooting cannot be ignored. They provide a capability that can’t be filled by another platform, at least not without great expense and sacrifice in other areas. Buy one of those I recommend, or a different one recommended by a trusted, knowledgeable source, like an instructor. Get a magnified optic for it- something with a variable zoom objective that has a low end below 5x and an upper zoom around 10x. 3-9x is a pretty classic range, 2-10x is great, as is 3-12x or 4-14x. Objective lens sizes of around 40mm are perhaps the most versatile. Scopes with BDC type reticles, rangefinding reticles, and illumination provide tons of utility and should be focused on rather than simple crosshair reticles without illumination. Consider a sling for the rifle, as well as maybe a bipod. While not as necessary for bolt-action guns, try to select one that uses detachable magazines. They provide more utility and capability over those that use internal magazines. /longrange is an excellent place to ask a knowledgeable group of folks for advice on excellent starting setups.
Other notes: With regard to stock furniture on practical weapons, go synthetic. Synthetic stocks are very robust, strong, and often cheaper than wood stocks. They are not nearly as aesthetically pleasing, but they are more functional. Wood can swell and warp in varying temperatures, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. Wood is also prone to cracking, breaking, dry rotting in some conditions, especially cheap wooden stocks. Synthetic stocks do not have these same problems. Also, it just feels worse to scar up a pretty walnut stock hauling a gun through a briar patch, whereas for a plastic gun, it doesn’t feel like abuse. If you do choose wood, consider laminated wood- it looks great, its super strong and has all or most of the advantages of synthetic.
These 5 guns I have attempted to persuade new shooters to focus on are really dependent on another factor. Training. If you do not train and practice with these weapons, they will not be as effective, or as versatile as I postulate they can be. I say that an AR with a red dot can do most of the things that an AR with an LPVO can do. Its true, but only if you practice. Anyone can sling rapid fire strings into a IPSC silhouette at 25 yards with either a red dot or an LPVO. NOT everyone can do it at 100m with a red dot and an LPVO. But if you practice, you can. Optics do not increase the range of a weapon, they only increase your ability to see your target. LPVOs create that advantage of target identification with magnification. But for someone that can see their target, the optic matters less than their ability to hit the target. The same goes for shotguns. If you don’t practice running a pump gun, you will create malfunctions and you will wonder “why did p8nt recommend this shitty gun that doesn’t work?”. Or, if you want to hunt birds, you will need to take it to the skeet range and learn to shoot flying targets. It is not hard, but it is a totally different mentality and approach than almost every other type of shooting. You must train and practice. Shooting, in all its forms, is a perishable skill. Hit the range.
Other training videos:
Importance of Dry Fire
Bob Vogel on pistol grip
Jerry Miculek on how to shoot a pistol
What practice ammo?
Pat McNamara on fundamentals playlist
Practical Rifle Zeros
submitted by p8ntslinger to SocialistRA [link] [comments]

If you're overwhelmed or lost try reading this.

Firstly, I apologize for the length here. Try just reading the parts that pertain to your level as you go!
The game is more a series of goals than anything else with leveling being the primary one. Let me try and throw some goals out and tips for you.

[Start to Subclass (Levels 1-20)]

Starting out, do Afin's (NPC right at gate area) missions (ignore any missions where the NPC wants you to add them to party for now) for some quick XP and ARKS missions. Always do your ARKS missions and claim them by going to [Quests] menu [ARKs Missions] and [Receieve All Rewards]. You can generally ignore the story for now or complete at you own leisure but the story has little to do with what I'm going over and can be done anytime.
Hit level 15 by running expeditions in order and go to Officer Cofy at the counter to claim your mag. Dont forget to equip it in the [Mag] menu by selecting it and hitting equip.
There are faster ways to level them but a quick and easy reference is to feed the first item I list to level it and the second item you use before the Dex stat levels up.
Melee: Melee weapons [] Drop Dex: Monomate
Range: Ranged weapons [] Drop Dex: Dimate
Technique: Tech weapons [] Drop Dex: Trimate
Dexterity: Any Disc
Running expeditions in order helps unlock the next areas and also will open up new client orders for those zones. While we are at it, and this is IMPORTANT for starting out, when accepting a quest don't search other blocks, accept it in current block. After you accept but BEFORE you go on the gateway ship go to [Quests] then [Client Orders] and then [Accept Ongoing Orders in the Field]. This let's you pick up missions for the zone you are about to go in without having to find all the NPCs to talk to.
Another important bit, while accepting orders or browsing your client orders if you go to the display all option at the top of frame you can sort by zone. This will help you know where to go or where the game wants you to go.
Continue pushing expeditions until you hit level 20. Once you're level 20 immediately go to Cofy and accept the client order to obtain a subclass. You should also complete anything else Cofy has always. The monsters you have to kill Gorongo and Fordran are in Forest Area 2 and Volcano Area 2 respectively. Just run around area 2 until you find them.
Go to the class counter after you hand in the quest and select your subclass. Some common combos on NA are:
For skill trees please use a guide or ask a knowledgeable friend because they can be difficult to reset. You should also make 2 more level 1 characters so when skill reset passes are handed out you get 1 per character (they can be traded between characters via storage).

[Level 20-39, Hard and Photon Blasts]

You can now play on Hard and should immediately do so. You should always play on the hardest difficulty you can on NA with the exception of VHAQs vs SHAQs and kill speed but we will get to that later on.
You will have a slew of new client orders and you don't need to find the NPCs that give them out because you're accepting in the field still, right? Continue pushing the expeditions to have completed them all at least once while doing client orders along the way.
You should be level 30 or beyond at this point. In the back of the shopping plaza near the concert area (West side) is an old man named Jan. He has a bunch of easy quests you can do, like Afin did, that are tutorials. You can actually do this around level 20 if you like but for the sake of the guide I placed it here.
At level 30 if you've been keeping up with ARKs missions you'll get a box of Mag mini devices. Open it and stash any type you dont need for now in your storage and feed all of the type your mag is to your mag by using the [Use Device] option. Your Mag should be level 100 or close to it now and you will have access to a photon blast which has to be placed on your sub palette.
Photon Blasts are a big help for a few reasons, you're invincible during the animation and they help with PSE Bursts and PSE levels. Generally when a PSE burst starts, everyone in your group should gather together and then one person hold the photon blast button down. This makes a blue circle which your group members should stand in and then also use their photon blast. Once everyone is "locked in" the person that started holding it first needs to let go. You can tell who and how many photon blasts are ready by the red, green, blue and yellow party symbols by HP bars being lit up. If none are lit up don't hold your friends hostage, let go of the blast button and unleash it.
Finish your expedition world tour and if you already did then restart it over and do the new client orders for playing on hard.
You should also be doing your daily orders. They will also show up in the [Ongoing Field Orders] but of special note the 3 client orders with blue arrows should be done every day. They are always in the same mission and you can tell by cycling through the Display All button or by the boss name. Each blue up arrow done gives you 5% triboost which goes up daily up to 15 times (caps at 50% triboost but you gain some leeway if you miss a day or five). Triboost is extra experience, meseta and rare drop rates.
You should be doing Urgent Quests every time they pop up on the hardest difficulty you can (except probably mining base 3 on super hard or higher, wait until you have a good group and good gear). Later on you can be pickier about Urgent Quests if theres some you don't like but while leveling the first class, you take whatever you can get.

[Level 40+ VHAQs and SHAQs]

Now that you're level 40 you can finally do advance quests. This is the more fun grouping part of the game and if you have friends that play or alliance members this is where you'll really get to know them better. At 40 you gained access to Very Hard difficulty. Going into advance quests you can see you can play on Very Hard. Advance quests have a constant +100% experience boost to them however they cost capsules to do.
Very Hard Advance Quests cost 1 capsule and while looking at the menu you can see there are three notations added to each level for the cost, a capsule A or B or C. Missions that require an A capsule will drop B which will drop C which will drop A. Your goal is to rotate through 1 of each mission, for instance floating facility, nightfall and daybreak. Monsters do not infinitely spawn in advance quests and you dont want to skip ahead because monsters can despawn. Your objective is to kill every single thing for capsules, photon boosters and unique weapon drops.
If you haven't yet at this point in the game you need to go to [Options] [Game Settings] [Settings] [Auto Loot Options] and enable everything. While you're there go down to [Display Rare Drop Animation] and set it to 10 star or higher (you can change this later to say, only be 13 stars) because every enemy basically drops a photon booster and you'll constantly have the rare drop animation sitting in the middle of your screen.
Your goal is to keep playing the same VHAQs over and over until you have about 60 of capsule A, B and C.
Now you are going to "plus" the threat level. You do this by before the mission hitting the [Raise Threat Level] button and spending ~49 of the appropriate capsule. This will boost the enemy levels which means more experience and better drops. Ideally all 3 missions you like to run will be "+50'd." This effect lasts one week from the moment you plus it so if you did so at 407pm on a Tuesday you will lose the plus at 407pm next Tuesday.
When you hit 50 you can play on super hard and should do your urgent quests on super hard also. Continue doing VHAQs if there is no Urgent Quest until you hit 55.
I should note that once your character hits 50 you will receive daily ARKs missions that are worth doing every day, starting next reset. The same goes for weeklies except you won't get them until next weekly reset.
Once you hit 55 you can now do Super Hard Advance Quests. These are substantially harder to the point where unless you are quite geared for your level your experience per hour will still be better in VHAQs over SHAQs. SHAQS also take 10 capsules to play instead of 1 and they use D, E and F capsules instead of A, B and C.
SHAQs have much better potential loot drops than VHAQs though. 13 star weapons and 11 star armor are much more common there (and they are still pretty rare) and SHAQs at +50 will ultimately be your long term leveling goal, especially if you want to level every class up to 75 for the permanent stat boosts through title rewards. The ultimate quests that are available at level 70 are quite hard for characters on their first 70 and also not really a great source of experience with slow kill times and missing the AQ +100% xp factor.

[Tips, Augments, Swap Shop and anything else]

Your subclass can level to 55 while your main class can level to 75. 55 is exactly what you need to do SHAQs so you can level a class to 75 then switch your main class to what your subclass was and select a brand new class as your subclass and keep doing this over and over until you're level 75 on all classes.
Getting capsules will seem like a chore at first and you may need to buy your first few but as long as you keep rotating A, B and C or D, E and F it will eventually be an afterthought where you have 1000's of them.
Once you've leveled up to your hearts content and you've picked which class you want to main your goal is to get a Saiki Set from SHAQ +50 Daybreak and a 13 star weapon from saving meseta on the player shop or from unique badge weapons with the badges you saved. Then your next step is to look up some affixing guides and affix your saiki and weapon by farming the relevant boss for you, some examples follow.
Now just keep farming, selling and looking for upgrades while playing with friends and enjoying pso2!
Some extra notes, any unit or weapon with 4 or more affixes with any of the above souls, pick up and sell on the player shop if you don't want to save for yourself. If you find Apprentice Soul or Modulator on ANYTHING pick it up and keep or sell. Apprentice is the female ARKs looking enemy that spawns in emergency quests and Modulator drops from "clone" replicas of ARKs that look like players.
At 30 and 45 you get a client order from your class trainer to get +5 skill points from each class. You have to do them in order and the first can be done on hard or harder and the second on very hard or harder. You have to kill Fang Banser (Forest) Gwanada (Desert) then Snow Banser (Tundra) Big Varder (Underground Shafts) and Quartz Dragon (Floating Continent).

[Swap Shop and inventory management]

Unless you are enhancing a 12 star or less weapon just sell any weapon or unit thats 9 star or below that doesnt have a soul or augment I mentioned.
10 star weapons you dont need you should swap shop into Excubes or Photon Spheres if you need them.
12 star weapons you dont need that don't have a +4 or higher you should swap in groups of 3 for lambda grinders.
12 star weapons with +4 or more sell on the player shop or use for enhancing.
10 star units you dont need that dont have good augments you should swap in groups of 5 for photon spheres.
To find the [Swap Shop] go to the shopping cart icon and one will be called [Swap Shop]. You can also go south of the concert area and find the actual stand for [Swap Shop] as well as [Swap Shop 2] and [Mission Badge Shop]

[Max Level Starter goals]

Someone asked what to do once 75 main and sub:
2 things you can do next as a suggestion.
The first is you level the other classes to 75 for extra permanent stats. You get a title for reaching 75 from the title counter located by the gateway ship door.
The other is to begin farming gear and augments to affix that gear as well as the money to fund those projects, usually obtained by selling items on the player shop. Things like the augments I mentioned will always sell and you can sell weapons you dont like or units you dont need also. You should also make skill rings and depending on the ring and class, level it to 20.
A quick 75 to do list would be like:
4 augment affix your saiki with something like:
For ranged: Precision 3+, noble precision, apprentice or fang soul and modulator or vinculum as an example

[Lambda Grinders and 13* Enhancing]

You will use lambda grinders when you enhance your 13* weapons, make some rings and enhance some rings.
You can't do much to alleviate the rings using them BUT you can alleviate the burden from weapons. Normally each weapon you feed a 13* uses 1 lambda grinder.
Due to this you want to minimize how many weapons you use to enhance a 13* weapon instead of spam feeding like a 12* or lower.
So what you'll do is make 4 or so +30 12* weapons (dont unlock the +30 potential) with your 7-12 fodder items. Then feed ONE +30 12* weapon to your 13* which will take it to +10.
Then unlock the potential and feed it ONE more +30 12* weapon to take it to +20, unlock the 2nd potential and then feed it TWO 12 star +30 weapons to take your 13 star to plus 30.
This way you only use 4 of your precious Lambda grinders and not 80 of them. Sometimes you might need a fifth, barely enhanced weapon, like a +10 12*. Still its 5 Lambda grinders versus 80.
Did I miss anything or if you have questions let me know!
submitted by RellCesev to PSO2 [link] [comments]

Ya Know, Asking for Roms is bad...Unless they are legal:) Get ready for some truly amazing Homebrew! Disk Swapping for Genesis Plus GX! Better Amiga! 60 FPS SNES, HD PS1, FBNEO! Core Set Update for the Mini Classics! Enjoy:)

Two Releases in Two Days, Enjoy:)
Release Link at bottom of this Post!
Guess who's back, back again:)?
Here we are for another Update, touching up a few things, adding others! I watched Looks That Kill, a new movie, that the trailer would kind of lead you to believe is a comedy! But, it is actually a well acted Drama movie with a dark comedy twist! I think it will become a Cult Classic. And, I overall enjoyed it:) Now, I need to finish up Future Man!
And, I randomly started listening to some newer music. I am quite eclectic in my music tastes, from Chicago, to Electric Light Orchestra, to KMFDM, to Pantera, to some stuff you might not expect me to listen to! Christine and the Queens I found to be quite interesting. The lead singer has an amazing voice. Reminds me quite a bit of the sheer raw power that Beth Ditto of Gossip also has. And like Beth, Chris simply does not give a rat's ass what others think, and it shows in the pure energy conveyed live and even in the Studio Music!
In any case, let's get to this Update!
Da Videos!
The Videos come first this time, as I only did 2!:) You can see my exploiting and demonstrating the amazing 3dSen Emulator on PC, and analyzing things in such a way to pull off some fun additions that one night not expect to work! Within my current Release, in Xtras/MXYZPTLK/ is a 3dSen ReadMe, that I will Update in future Releases, with any and all Exploits or Additions I am able to work in, environmentally, or otherwise! And, a showcase of the amazing Random Game Mode Activate, to top things off with the icing on the cake:)
3dSen HD 3D NES Games! Xtreme Exploit To Add MORE 3D Games! Castlevania Goes More Xtreme, Literally!
Genesis Mini Classic - Random Game Mode Activate! 6 Button Fix! Easy RetroArch Exit!
And, for those that might need a good laugh:)
And, of course, plenty more on my YouTube Channel:)
VVVVVV is now 6 MB Smaller on Install. The CLV is now CLV-G-VVVVVV to ensure there are no conflicts. Delete the CLV-VVVVVV one. Thanks for the heads up bslenul! All good now:)
Random Game Mode Activate! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
As you can see in the above linked video, this is a truly beautiful addition! When you are in a rut, and have a game on the tip of your tongue to play, but can't think of what to click...Let the amazing Random Game Mode Activate, courtesy of the scripting prowess of DanTheMan827, take charge, Roulette Style:) It works most effectively and optimally with SNESC! But, it should function quite nicely with MD/NES, as well. If things work out, Dan may be able to touch things up to have more variables. But, as is, it is a truly solid staple and will remain on my Main UI, along with RetroArch UI and Easy OC, as a permanent fixture! Go ahead, try it out! Note: if you are playing games where saves truly matter, it is probably best you load them the "old fashioned way". This is meant more as a fun gimmick, to throw some randomness at you! It is especially cool if you have thousands of games, and have no clue where to start! My video shows some fun shenanigans, in any case! Thanks again, Dan!
Genesis Mini Classic (6 Button Fix! (Mini MD)
Just a reminder, if using 6 Button Controller, you can now open RetroArch, Quick Menu, Controls, Load Mapper, Genesis Mini, 6 Button Fix:)
Genesis Mini Classic (More Optimal RetroArch Exiting! (Mini MD)
Due to popular demand and request, I did a quick touch up, so that you can easily tap Reset Button on your MD Mini ONCE, to Open RetroArch! Twice, to immediately Exit RetroArch! You can see me do it a few times in the Random Game Mode Activate Video! This should please both audiences, as you can Stay or Go, Clash Style:) Personal thanks to ReyVGM and jonnyOr for testing!
PS4 Controller Fix! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
Thank you bslenul for doing a quick patch up of incorrect mapping! You simply rock, as always! And, I know, many many many people will be most appreciative and less frustrated, as things will work more optimally!
Nestopia Fixed! (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
Personal thanks to NESminiling0618 and cosmicpineapple (stand out user name, for sure:) for the heads up. I quickly jumped onto fixing it for this Touch Up Release!
Refresher Course on Mod Hub Games! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
Don't forget to check out the 2 amazing Commodore 64 Collections on Mod Hub, that Requiem put together! He had spent a ton of time putting these together. Also, remember, after each game, restart the game in RetroArch Twice to be able to properly select from the list again! Thanks Greenchili for helping test these fantastic games! These will be absolutely always in my Main UI! And, we will try to get even more homebrew games into the Next Update! And, once you try these C64 Collections out, be sure to post a comment on which games you most enjoyed!
3D NES Games Possible on the Mini Classics?!
Studio Geod did such a fantastic job with their amazing 3dSen emulator for PC. I do a video showcase demonstration above in the YouTube Link. You can see me do some fun exploitation of what I feel is a decent enough pattern of recognition asset wise! And, it worked out, successfully, in a couple games. I feel, once more of us experiment, we will get many more fun results!
As far as this working on the Mini Classics. I am going to have to simply say, NO, not at all, for now. It would take Studio Geod and any preexisting licensing agreements, whether Steam, or otherwise, to not be tied up...Plus, either their direct efforts and/or assistance, and of course, Open Source Code, is greatly helpful!
In that respect, even DraStic should be Open Source enough for us to touch it up even further in fairly near future Releases!
For now, enjoy 3dSen, either on VR HeadSets, and/or PC! But, in time, it may migrate, with a bit of work, to the Mini Classics! Not to say that 3d Hacks cannot be made, however! But, the amazing gimmick of Mode 7 like scaling and rotation, amongst other magic, is near untouchable! I will also help anyone who needs assistance, running this as optimally, depending on what computer setups they are currently on! It is a fairly cpu intensive application. But, I will help Xtreme Mode Activate it, as much as possible, to help you all along! I will also do many more videos, showcasing games people request to be seen. And, I will try to see what I can do for best results as far as pseudo or near full fledged 3D, depending on whichever game! Plus, more mappers can potentially be added, over time! Thanks again for the amazing early year end gift, Studio Geod! Much obliged!
WIP and Final Thoughts!
I have gotten a crap ton of feedback since the Release. I thank you all! And, as far as WIP for Next Release, I will try to work in suggestions you all leave me in the comments on YouTube, Reddit, Discord, etc! Enjoy this touch-up Update, and be sure to let me know what current games/tv/movies you are all checking out! Always love good suggestions! And, I will be in contact with screemer and Axanar of AutoBleem, as well as Genderbent of RetroBoot, and try to make sure we all have a nice collaborative Next Release, together!
Link to Release Page, at bottom, per usual:)
Hello Everyone! Here we are again for yet another awesome Update! We have games, we have Cores, we have fixes, we have everything but the kitchen sink!
The world has been an absolutely crazy place over the last few months. But, hey, when is it not! That doesn't mean you all have to just stop enjoying life, clinging for fear and having anxiety over things to come, what is to be! Good and bad have always existed. You adapt, learn, progress, move forward, positive thinking wise! In any case, I truly hope all of you are staying safe, and enjoying your lives as best as you possibly a most harmonious way!
I have tried to find the right balance between priorities, responsibilities, and personal enjoyment. Between working and updating, I also tried to catch up on some more TV Shows and Movies, as well as play a few games. Ozark, a Netflix show I initially passed right on by, thinking it wouldn't be that great...I checked it out, and ended up binge watching all 3 seasons. Aside from Breaking Bad, other shows that were similarly binge worthy to me were ones such as Shield, Prison Break, Heroes, and so on. The Writers' Strike occurred amidst the latter two, causing the overall quality to severely diminish in the final seasons...(kinda like Dexter and Game of Thrones!)
And, lastly, I finished Ozark on Netflix, also a great show...especially if you like crime style dramas, on the edge of your seat dramas, like Breaking Bad! I am now gonna finish up Future Man on Hulu, which is a fun, and very goofy show! Shows that are just absolutely goofy are few and far between. One I grew up with was called Get a Life, with Chris Elliott, heh. And, I also loved Sledge Hammer! In any case, let's get down to mod business!
3D NES Games!? Can they run on the Mini Classics?
Unfortunately, they would more than likely run as unoptimally as Mesen does on the Mini Classics! And, similarly, Mesen has some incredible HD Sprite Replacement Games, along with Custom CD Soundtracks...such as with Metroid and Castlevania! Mesen is incredible on PC. I would love to see it run better on the Minis!
3D wise, I played Metroid Cubed in 2003, of which Nintendo did a Cease and Desist Takedown Notice on! I was thoroughly surprised and happy to see that the current 3dSen just got Released for Steam! I will be doing videos on it, soon after this Update. There are roughly 70 Supported NES games, with a bit of magic handling, have amazing 3d Effects! You have to see it to believe it, and play it to truly comprehend! Again, expect a video of this in action, probably later today, if not tomorrow:)
As far as "this" kind of 3d running on ANY of the Mini Classics. It is too intensive, cpu wise, and would run slow...unless a miracle happened! So, for now, it is best enjoyed via PC or such! Maybe, one day, however, the miracle of it working reasonably on the Minis would be nice. But, do not expect it anytime soon!
Requiem For A Mod Dream! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
How many of you remember Requiem for a Dream, the movie! I used to rent about any new movie that came out. And, damn, that was quite a different kind of movie! It verged on the oddball kind of stuff I would expect from a David Lynch film! But, even to this day, I still vividly remember some of the crazy imagery that happened on screen! Now that I think about it, the newer movie Horse Girl seems like might have a semblance of the weird that RFAD had!
In any case, will the "Real" Requiem stand up! Requiem is a very cool, upstanding individual in the Mini Scene now. I have been in contact with him for over a year now, via the various Venues I communicate with people on. He kept suggesting and recommending games I try out, and vice versa. And, of course, I tried to fix up things based on his feedback. We started talking about "Homebrew" games, of which I have never really wanted to jump out of bed to just play! But, tried and true, more and more of these games have been getting my attention!
Where does Requiem come into play, you might ask? Well, he has painstakingly been seeking out and destroying...Had to do the Metallica reference! Such a badass song! Pretty much since my last Update 2 months ago, he had been searching every nook and cranny of the internet for the best of the best Homebrews, for many different systems. We started brainstorming a few ideas. And, in the end, it culminated in him putting together 2 absolutely, phenomenal collections of Commodore 64 Games, which are NOW on the Mod Hub, via hakchi2 CE! And, of course, those with PSC, if you watch my last video where I use Hakchi as a Game Manager for PSC! (Maybe, one day, true support!), you can grab well over 100 games now, which will keep increasing each and every update!
Back to these 2 collections of Commodore 64 Homebrews! You have roughly 50 or so great games, of many different genres, by several great enthusiasts who fan made them! And, "MarcosGM", it even includes the Caveman Remake you kept asking me about getting the real version of working on MAME, which isn't easily done on the Minis!
Be sure to grab these 2 collections of games from the Games Tab, and enjoy hours and hours and hours of game play! Try out I Wanna Flip The Sky, it is a great companion piece to the Next Great thing in The Update! VVVVVV! Thanks again, Requiem, you have been an absolutely amazing part of the Homebrew Selection Process! I sense more to come in future Updates!
The Two Commodore 64 Collections. After you play a game, go into RetroArch Settings, Restart Game Twice, so you can properly select another!
VVVVVV...No, not the Cult Classic TV Mini-Series!:) (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
V was a great TV series, as well as Mini Series! I loved the show as a kid, and even the remake roughly a decade ago! There were action figures, comics, even some PC games based off of it. And, Freddy Krueger was in it, before he turned evil:)
But, VVVVVV is as mindbendingly cool, gravity wise, as Inception! And, yeah, very much looking forward to Nolan's upcoming movie! That, and Top Gun will be fun movies this year. Hell, I may even check out Wonder Woman, since the first standalone movie (Non-Justice League), was not too shabby. And, I also see that a director's cut should be coming out of Justice League, which might be a great deal better. Zak Snyder has done some fun movies before. And, apparently, only 25 percent of his work was used in the final film. He had to step down from the director's chair due to a tragedy in real life, unfortunately!
Terry Cavanagh developed VVVVVV on a variety of platforms. DanTheMan827 was a huge fan of one of his other games, Super Hexagon...By the way There is a Mini Version of Hexagon (albeit, with an epilepsy warning, due to the crazy flashing) on one of the C64 Collections Requiem put together! Dan got things up and running, VVVVVV wise, for the MD/SNES/NES Classics! You simply need to download the game from the Mod Hub, throw the into the CLV Folder. can be gotten from the purchasable GOG or Steam Versions. I am personally using the Steam Version, which can be grabbed for roughly 3 USD. It is a masochistic game, that is incredibly addictive and fun to play. You flip gravity to traverse the levels in very unique ways, with some fun puzzles along the route! I did a video demonstration of the game in action! And, of the time of this Release, Patton's take on the game, demonstration wise, should be up, or soon to be up! And, I am sure he will also showcase some of the other fun games that pop up in this Release!
Thor, of Retroguru, helped get VVVVVV up and running for the Playstation Classic. And, I am indebted to him for the great efforts he has put forth on some other amazing homebrews, as well...which I am also very happily posting in the Release! This works with AutoBleem, RetroBoot, my Xtreme Inector! VVVVVV for PSC is in my PSC Folder, AB, RB_APPS, simply install the game to your Flash Drive, then navigate to Apps/vvvvvv/vvvvvv and copy there. Then, push start on Main UI, then push select a few times til you get to the Custom Apps, which will now have VVVVVV and any others you decide to install! Some require you to add the game files, due to legal reasons, just like VVVVVV! Try out Fruit-Y, Hermes, and SqRxZ 4 for PSC! And, you can try out SqRxZ 1-4, Xump 1-2, Trap Runner, Super Nutmeg, Fred's Journey, for the other Minis! Thanks again, all of you at Retroguru!
And, Retroguru also worked on the fanmade Giana's Return, off of Great Giana Sisters! There will be a nice definitive version of it coming out, due to their hard work and dedication! And, we could probably expect this sometime in the fairly near future! Giana games have always been fun, from the first time I played on Commodore 64 and Amiga! They are also on Nintendo DS and Sony and Microsoft Systems. Fun, slighly inspired by Mario 1. But, there is enough awesome sauce in the games to carry their own weight! Nintendo put a little pressure on the original developers, to get the first game removed from Store Shelves. It worked, to a degree. But, Giana became a cult classic, and is now here to stay!
Retroguru! (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
These guys are great, and have worked on roughly a good dozen+ amazing games. Many of which are now in this Release! Several you can get from the Mod Hub, and a few from the same spot VVVVVV is in, directly above!
Nestopia Sound Better Than Ever! (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
You may have noticed, quite a few games had scratching sound with Nestopia...No More! Thanks carmiker!
Genesis Mini Classic Placeholder 6 Button Controller Fix! (Mini MD)
Some of you with 6 Button MD Mini Controllers, may have noticed remapping tends to be off by +1! We should be able to work towards a true fix, in the future. But, with some great testing power and patience, both ReyVGM and myself have a placeholder fix for those of you who are tired of the frustration of accidentally pushing the wrong button and using your magic or power in games, such as Streets of Rage, etc! Simply go into RetroArch Settings, Controls, Mapper, Load Mapper, Genesis Mini, 6 Button Fix! It tests and works great.
Genesis Plus GX Sega CD Disk Swapping! (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
Yes, you can now swap disks for Sega CD, with Genesis Plus GX! Simply go into RetroArch Settings, Disk Append, and select your disk, there. Now, you can finally beat Night Trap and other such games on Genesis Plus GX! This will not work on Genesis Plus Xtreme, for now! Thanks so much Ekeeke!
ScummVM Fixed Up! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
You should be able to have no issues running games with /bin/scummvm as well as /bin/km_scummvm Thanks to any and all who gave me feedback on problems loading a few games.
gpSP RetroAchievements Fix! (Mini MD-S-NESC-PSC)
For those of you who are uninitiated, gpSP is a solid GBA Core that is fast and powerful. Its main drawback is that it is not completely reliable with saves. But, now, RetroAchievements should finally be fixed for the Core!
Thanks negativeExponent!
RetroArch Xtreme Performance Touch-Ups for Amped/Ozone/RGUI! (Mini MD-S-NESC)
Got quite a bit of feedback from over 100 people. And, I touched up all 3 to have slightly better performance, without trading off too much stability and latency! Remember, only install one RetroArch at a time! Speaking of which, bslenul also helped with a nice coding addition to help properly push Amiga Saves to the folder they belong to. You can view this and more info, whilst viewing the Core in hakchi!
Playstation Classic Goodies! PS1 in HD! SNES at 60 FPS! FBNEO W/ColecoVision! (Mini PSC)
Unfortunately, these are strictly for Playstation Classic, for now!
PS1 in HD! Yeah, this was no easy task. Many games used to have bad stutter and/or be unplayable, while in HD Mode Activate! After installing the Xtreme Injector, load up even R-Type Delta, a game that had issues before, and watch the magic happen! And, of course, try many other games, even Ridge Racer! I also updated special case scenario video plugin setups for Neon, Peops, Unai! So, you have 4 nifty options to choose from!
Use Mednafen SNES Faust to run SNES games at 60 FPS, even with Rewind on! SNES9x 2016-2018, and up lose 20 FPS, roughly, with Rewind enabled! You also get an added perk of being able to run many FX Chip Games, like Star Fox, Yoshi's Island, Stunt Race FX, also at 60 FPS! And, even Mega Man X1, 2 work great! Fun fun Core! Thanks Mednafen, for your helpful efforts with this amazing addition! Thanks so much nl255, for helping test this great addition...And, having excellent attention to detail. I can make improvements to it, as time progresses. This is one can of whoop ass that is a Beast Mode Activate Core, without a doubt!
FBNEO is an amazing Arcade Core, nice companion piece to MAME. I run both! In any case, thanks to dinkc64 and Gab75, we have quite a few nifty homebrews for ColecoVision, as well as Team Pixelboy Games, working with direct load from FBNEO! They must be inside a folder named coleco (case sensitive), along with the appropriate Coleco Bios. Greenchili and myself have put efforts into getting many of these coded in last year. Dinkc64 was nice enough to push some of the coding, and add to the awesomeness, for even more games! I was happy with Dragon's Lair SGM and Buck Rogers SGM! But, now, you can run over 40+ games, as well as many more! I will do more videos of this, as well as help any of you that need assistance running these. You are also welcome to ping or pm me on our Discord! And, if you check back periodically, you may see a surprise or few turn up inside Xtras/MXYZPTLK, in my Release! So, anyone who wants to run these, or has trouble running them, simply let me know! And, we will go from there! Coleco Via FBNEO will be a priority for me to do more info and help you all run. I just ran a little short on time, so will follow-up right after Release with more of this magic! Just don't forget to refresh the MXYZPTLK folder! This will be the next priority, along with getting some 3d NES Videos up! Also, Requiem did a nice little compilation of Team Pixelboy Cheats, for the Coleco Games, which I threw in Xtras/MXYZPTLK! Other fun stuff may show up there, this week, too! Just keep refreshing, and maybe, just maybe, you will see some goodies pop in! Thanks again Greenchili, dinkc64, Gab75, and all else involved!
Commodore Amiga/64/Vic-20 All Accounted For, and better than ever!
Thanks Sonninnos and RSN8887, per usual! And, I also did what I could to help improve things on the Mini Classics. Games now load Warp Speed Ahead, automatically! Try Fix it Felix, as an example, especially the slower C64 Formats! Additionally, did some sprucing up, and you can...on the Minis (aside from PSC), use these command lines.../bin/c64, /bin/c128, and /bin/vic20 ! Vic-20 is fun. I would recommend trying homebrew games first, as some of the retail games do not yet work! But, things are getting better each update! Have tried quite a few in my schedule, when not working! And, a personal thanks to MadFranko008 for some of the incredible wealth of Commodore Knowledge he has continually passed along! It has helped give some fun ideas of things to mess with, Core wise!
I also did a new tutorial on my YouTube, to cover "Legal" BIOS. I also did some personal testing, and matched up all of the "out in the wild" MD5 Checksums, with their appropriate names, too! You can see this information, in Xtras, Amiga, Direct Load txt. Scroll all the way down, for BIOS MD5s for both sets of Forever Amiga BIOS, as well as the "Out in the Wild" ones! And, don't be a stranger, if you ever need assistance! Many of you have already come to me, and are now playing Amiga "Forever", literally:)
What the hell is going on with the Turbografx-16 Mini!? (PCE Mini)
You may be wondering, when the hell is this thing gonna be hacked in a way that the public can use it, user friendly wise! Don't get your hopes up, too soon. It is a tricky system to work with, as entering FEL mode, like with the other Minis (requiring power+reset), is not possible the same way on the TG-16 Mini! There is no Reset Button! The Reset, even on the real hardware, was on your controller! select+start! Sound familiar? There are some great people picking at the system. But, with all the crazy stuff going on in the world, true dedication, day in and day out, may not be as easily a goal, as was when we were all doing MD Mini, SNES Mini, and so on! No matter the case, be patient, be careful if someone DOES release a, it can potentially be risky. If you screw up the Uboot, you would typically have to take the system apart to fix it!
Da Videos!
Playstation Classic - MORE Badass Homebrew! Bonus! Hakchi as Game Manager!!!
Playstation Classic - Badass Homebrew! Missile Command, Tower Defense, etc!
Playstation Classic - Playstation Games in HD! NBA Basketball FTW!
Playstation Classic - ColecoVision Arcade Quality FTW! FBNEO Wins Per Usual!
Playstation Classic - Sharp X68000 Tutorial! Arcade Games FTW!
Playstation Classic - ColecoVision Homebrew FTW! FBNEO Rulez! Direct Load!
Genesis Mini Classic - VVVVVV FTW! Truly Badass HomeBrew!
Genesis Mini Classic - VVVVVV FTW! Truly Badass HomeBrew!
Genesis Mini Classic - SHMUPS That Will Literally Kick Your Ass!
Genesis Mini Classic - ColecoVision SGM Showcase! Dragon's Lair, Pac Man Metal Gear Crossover, etc!
Playstation Classic - Commodore 64 Goes More Xtreme! Faster Loading! Badass Games!
Turbografx 16 Mini! First Impressions! Worth Buying? Rondo of Blood FTW!
Turbografx 16 Mini Unboxing!
Playstation Classic - SNES Games Running At 60 FPS FTW! With Rewind!
Check out my channel for a plethora more Videos! Thanks!
Closing Notes!
It has been a crazy and wild ride, this year! Who would have ever thought 2020 would be like what many felt 2000 would have been! Hopefully, things smooth out, in the future...And, harmony happens to a degree! We can all just try our best! Keep pushing forward, positive forward thinking!
DanTheMan827, who of course works on Hakchi2 CE, has also gotten into another thing we have chatted about in the past...Squashing files to even smaller sizes! Expect some examples of these for the MD/SNES/NES Classic, in likely the Next Release! Some test examples, potentially can drop in size, 7 MB, at a fair low, to over 100 MB+ at a high! Just needs some testing to ensure all rolls out smoothly!
Requiem also did the Custom Arts for several of the newest Game Additions to Mod Hub. I, of course, had to do a little editing, getting them to proper dimensions, and all that fun stuff, for appropriate display! Also check out the little animation for VVVVVV when viewed in the Mod Hub! I may get more demonstrations like these up, in the Next Release!
I will also work towards trying to have games for nearly every Core, available, on Mod Hub!
As I type this last section, I have succeeded in working in maximum overdrive, doing my double shifts at work, as well as finishing up the Update, trying to help troubleshoot others, as well as take care of real life responsibilities. Many of you have already reported to me that now, with the lockdown not being as bad, you are taking a long needed vacation! Well, I can say it first...Enjoy it! Try to really grab the moment, and just have fun for a little bit, rather than letting despair take hold, with the world situation! Things will get better, you will get better, you will see!
See you Next Time! And, in between! And, remember...Once I get a little sleep, I will be back in action with more videos, and even MORE WIP Updating!
And, looking forward to the feedback, as well as catching up on all of your many messages!
PS I have also communicated with Genderbent. And, once he is done with his mini vacation, he should be back to getting another kickass RetroBoot together, complete with a new RetroArch! We have decided to not jump right onto the newest ones, without some extensive testing. 1.7.8 and on, have had various fun factors to contend with. 1.8.4 is quite good, at the moment. 1.8.5 became 1.8.6 became 1.8.7, quite fast. Typically, a new RetroArch Release would be 6 months, give or take...unless issues "butterfly mod effect" arise. Butterfly Mod Effect is a part of any development process. You gotta break a few eggs to create an omelette, metaphorically speaking! But, in any case, Libretro is doing a tremendous job, as well as we all are attempting to bring more and more future nostalgic awesomeness to you all!
Signing out, KM:)
submitted by MDFMKanic to PlaystationClassic [link] [comments]

Quick Draft for M21 is almost here! Hopefully these tips/ tricks can help!

Quick Draft for M21 is almost here! Hopefully these tips/ tricks can help!
MTGA was the game that got me into magic, before I knew about magic, but it had such a high cost of entry. Here, there was no start up fee, so I figured that I would give it a try. I played during Beta, but after the Reset, i never came back until halfway through GRN. Being a F2P player, I quickly found drafting the most efficient way of completing a collection (an I am all about efficiency: if you are spike, the CMC is actually the quickest way). When I started drafting, it was something new for me, so I was terrible to start but caught on fast, getting better along the way. I know that my win-rates in Limited would put me well into the top 1% of players, so my goal from this post is just to give a guide on my thoughts to the format, hoping that it will help those who have been saving up their gold for the drafts. And yes, it is possible to collect all the Rares and Mythics as a F2P player (just extremely difficult).
I have completed 29 Traditional Drafts with a match win-rate of 74%, going 3-0 14 times. Like I said before, very few people will have these win-rates, my goal is to try and help you out and hope you learn something. When it comes to theses drafts, i have not been rare drafting aggressively. However, I do take every Mythic that I see, and I will take rares over average picks, so I have not been drafting the most optimal. But I do expect many people going into Quick Drafts to rare draft aggressively, and there is nothing wrong with that, I've done it many times. End of the day, its the commons that are going to win/ lose you the games, just cause of their consistency. If your deck is made up of one bomb, there is only a 32% chance that you see it by turn 6. Yes a bomb will win you some games, but don't rely on only it.
So, this is me trying to give back to the community. My goal is you find something that you can take away from this! And if its too long (I'm trying to organize it somewhat), well best of luck drafting anyways!


First things first, before going through a draft, it is nice to know the cards and what to look out for. Here are some good resources that I have used when I am going through drafts.
Draftaholics : If you are brand new to a format, I have always like this due to its simplicity while you are going through a draft. You can easily Ctrl F, search a card name and see where it comes up. It does have its limitations, as it is on sheer power level of cards, not synergies, and synergies are very important in M21.
Limited Set Review : Once again, this is a good way to learn the cards, get an idea of each set. You can also use a draft helper, i personally like the simplicity of Untapped, but it has had some glitches this set. Once again, this format is all about synergy, so therefore, you have to remember taking the best card by rankings is not necessarily the best pick, but a good start.
Here are links to various trackers: MTGArenaPro,, MTGAAssistant
17lands I just found out about this tracker recently, and quite enjoy it. It lets you look back at your drafts and therefore you can think about the picks you made, what you would change.
Draft guide It is always nice to open a Bomb Mythic P1P1 and build your deck around it. However, this is extremely rare (this has happened to me exactly 1 time with a P1P1 Massacre Wurm). The majority of your decks are going to be made of commons. So it is a good idea to know what the best commons are. If you are seeing this still in P5/P6 its generally telling you that those colours may be open.
Reid Duke Course If you really want to do some reading, here is Reid Dukes series from 2015
Drafting the hard way Ben Stark is a master of Limited. And I am actually impressed at how good he can be a streaming. Some streamers are great players, but terrible streamers. Ben can be both inform-able and entertaining.
Are podcasts your thing. Limited resources is the best podcast as it comes to drafting (and maybe the only one too...)
Edit: Additional podcasts Lords of Limited and Limited Levelups
I am someone who never tries to force a colour. That being said, some of my trainwrecks have been trying to stick to the colour of a P1P1 rare. That being said, no matter how good you are, you are going to have some bad drafts. Some drafts looking back I would have been better forcing. Others I did not move into a lane soon enough.

Finding the Open Lane

This is the first draft I tracked on 17 lands, and I think shows how to stay open. I had a P1P1 Dragonfire. I followed this up with a Mythic, or else I would have taken Shock. Now, P1P3 is where I had the first tough decision. Dowser, Acoltye are the two best cards in the pack, and Magmutt a solid third. Here, my rule is if one card early is significantly higher on power level than the other, I would take it as I dont have a second colour. However, if picks are close, I will take the on colour card first. I do not like to commit too soon to other colours, so I followed this up with the Magmutt for that reason. P1P4, once again, on power level you have Sphere, Sage, Devil and Scanner, Swift Response as the best cards. For me once again, I am taking the on colour card, as none of the other picks are significantly better, and I do not like committing to a 2nd colour too soon. P5, nothing exciting for red here, so I go with the first Secure. P6 I take the the Idol over the Houndmaster. I like idol in aggressive decks because you can trade off, and then get them back for some card advantage. At this point in time, I am thinking that I will probably end up Boros, but want to keep myself open. However, in the last half of the pack, there was no good red cards to play up. With the Tempered Veteran coming around and the Secure, that told me that White was open, but it was now starting to look like Black was also pretty open due to both the Lurker and Archer in P8.
P2P1, well hello there (I only drew the angel once.... This is why a single bomb mythic/ rare doesn't always just win you games, you do need an overall solid deck which comes from the commons and uncommons and having good synergy). Now I had identified my primary colour as White. You want to identify your primary colour by the first few picks in P2. It was now just a matter of RW or WB. For the first half of the pack, I took the Neutral cards, favouring white cards over both Red and Black. By the 2nd half of the pack, it was clear Red was not open, so I moved into Black. Hopefully this little insight into one draft has been helpful.

Building the Deck

Orzhov Deck
Once the draft is done, it is time to build the deck. I didnt talk about it much sooner, but overall, it is very important in this format to have a good curve. Depending on the deck I have, I want 6-8 T2 plays, 5-7 T3 plays, 3-5 T4 plays, no more than 4+ 5 mana cards. This does vary deck to deck, but this is the ideal range I want. This is something to consider while you are drafting. If you have lots of 4 drops, its better to take a slightly less impactful 2 drop, just to fill out your curve. I have won many games just because I am over here curving out, while my opponent is just passing the turn.
For this format, 17 lands is pretty standard. If you are in an aggressive deck, or have a lot of cheap card draw, you can cut a land (my lowest was 14 in a UR spells deck, ironically I lost match 3 because I flooded out).
The above deck I drafted, notice it only has 5 T2 plays, and 7 T3 plays. Its not the best curve, but also is not bad. As for the mana base, pretty straight forward for this deck. I have both white and black two drops, and my only double mana cost is 3WW. When it comes to building a manabase, here is a great Frank Karsten article showing how many mana sources you want for each colour to cast consistently on curve. I do try to follow this as close as I can for limited, however, its not always going to happen. I do however, have my own rules and priorities
1) In a two colour deck, I value highly getting at least one piece of fixing. I will take the first on colour dual, or Fable Passage over decent playables.
2) For a 3 colour deck, I want at least 3 pieces of mana fixing.
3) For a splash card with only one coloured mana, I want 4 pieces of mana of that colour in my deck. If i have decent card selection/ draw, I will sometimes play with 3.
If you want to play around with odds of hitting certain lands in your top X cards, use this calculator


Once you got your deck build, there are some questions you need to ask yourself. You want to figure out how you are going to win games what are the synergies in your deck, what forms of removal do you have, and also, what are the instant speed spells that your opponents can have.. The deck above, has no hard cheap removal, but does have 3 Imps that deter attackers, as well as a celestial enforcer. Without cheap removal, it will be hard for this deck to win an aggressive game. However, this deck is built to grind. With the Liliana's Devotee, Idol of Endurance and Sanguine Indulgence this deck can grind. Then once it gets one of its 5 drop life-linkers it can pull ahead. So now that I identified my game plan, I know that I want to trade off aggressively with other decks.

Game Time

First of all, the easiest choice of all, go first if you are given the option. This is a fast format, take advantage of it.
2nd of all, mulligans. Because in limited, you are generally just one for one-ing your opponent (you use one of your cards to trade with one of your opponents), it is significantly harder to catch up if you go down a card. For this reason, you cannot mulligan too aggressively. This is something that is difficult to teach, because there are so many factors, your opponents, your deck, what your curve is like. Best way to learn is by doing. If you have a hand that you wonder if its worth a mulligan, take a screen shot and ask, id gladly respond with my thoughts.
3rd of all, consistently be evaluating your win con. Sometimes, you recognize that even though you are the grindy deck, its better to play aggressive. Sometimes, you recognize they have a better late game, so you have to be aggressive early. Sometimes you realize they are quite aggressive, and have an almost empty hand, so you just want to survive and win in the late game. Technically sometimes your win-con will change into who decks first, but i have only found this to be an issue in UG match-ups.
4th of all, interaction. Try and think what the opponent can have at instant speed. Here is a decent article on the removal spells, but it does omit some of the combat tricks. During game play it is always important to note what the opponent can be holding up so you don't get blown out at instant speed.
Was this the best deck that ive drafted, far from it. Were the games easy, not at all. The average match was 23 minutes. In the end, this deck did go 6-1 in games, 3-0 in matches.

Card Advantage

In Limited, there is not near as much card advantage as in constructed. Therefore, it is a very powerful effect being able to put yourself up a card, and it is detrimental to put yourself down a card. Here is an older article with some basics on what card advantage is.
One of my favourite synergies of Card Advantage in this format is curving a Skyscanner into a Crypt Lurker. I casted 2 creature spells to leave me with one creature and two cards in hand. Saccing a creature who has been Captured Sphere'd, or using village rites on a creature targeted by removal are all forms of card advantage. If you have an Alpine Houndmaster and search one of two creatures, that is a form of card advantage. If you trade creatures, and then create a token with Liliana's devotee, that is a source of card advantage, etc.. Most successful decks will need some form of card advantage, so keep this in mind when you are drafting.
On the flip side of things, you dont want to get blown out. For example, if you cast a spell that targets a creature you control (Dub, Defiant Strike, Rousing Read, etc), and your opponent kills your creature in response, they have now got a 2 for 1 and are ahead on cards, as their one removal spell dealt with two of your cards. This is why I am very low on cards like Dub. Sure, sometime you suit it up on T3 and the opponent doesnt have an answer for the creature, you are probably going to win and think Dub was the greatest. However, if your opponent has a removal spell, even after taking one or two hits, its such a devastating tempo loss you are almost always going to lose the game, so keep that in mind. Yes, it is nice to have instant speed tricks, but this is why you have to be aware the possible cards that the opponent can blow you out with.

The Colours

Overall, I have quite enjoyed this format. I have found for the most part the colours are pretty balanced, and it is not a bomb driven format. Overall, its more of an aggressive format, so you need to have cheap creature and cheap removal should be valued extremely high. Because of the formats aggressive nature, you are going to be rewarded more for having solid synergies, cheap removal, a solid curve and mana base.
If I were to rank the colours in order of power level (which is generally coming from the commons), it would be the following
1) Black- Fetid Imp and Grasp are solid defensive two drops. Also, most of the black cards are decently playable
2) White/ Red (Tie)- White has solid cheap removal in Swift Response, but also decent cheap creatures. Notice, because the format is aggressive, I do find having a good curve, and synergies great. Red also, has great cheap creatures, as well as removal.
4) Blue- Blue overall, i have found as a weak colour, but a solid support colour. The reason being, removal in blue is atrocious, any there is not much that impacts the board on T2 in blue. That being said, it can be a good support colour.
5) Green- I have consistently been disappointed in Green. Not counting rares, Green has no cheap removal or fight spells, which significantly hurts the colour. Hunters Edge is the best removal in Green and it is just asking to get 2 for 1nd if you opponent sense it coming. Drafting, it is extremely easy to find solid 4, 5 and 6 drops in Green, but in an aggressive format, you need to have good early plays, and overall, Green is lacking in this department.

The Archetypes

As it comes to Archetypes, I have found it difficult to have a mono coloured deck, but I have had a few decks close to mono coloured. Similarly, there is minimal fixing and therefore I try as hard as I can to stick to 2 colours, only going to 3 colours if I did not get enough playables, I lack removal, or I have a bomb to splash. With that in mind, my 2 colour match record (54-15, 78%) is significantly better than my 3 colour (6-6, 50%). That does not mean 3 colour decks cannot be good (Deck 1, Deck 2), but the main reason you end up 3 colours is because you just fell short on playables. So my advice is try as hard as you can to stick to 2 colours.
As for rankings, these are my rankings. Everyone has their own play style, I personally prefer grindy midrange matchups, so my drafting bias most likely leads me this way. That being said, I have gotten a 3-0 in every archetype except UG, UW (A 3-0 in Bant is the closest ive came), and UR.
My Decks
Deck Wins Loses WR
Orzhov 12 0 100%
Bant 3 0 100%
Golgari 3 0 100%
Gruul 3 0 100%
Radkos 13 2 87%
Dimir 12 5 71%
Jund 2 1 67%
Boros 5 3 63%
Selesnya 3 2 60%
Izzet 3 3 50%
Abzan 1 4 20%
Sultai 0 2 0%
My Matchups
Deck Wins Loses WR
3 Colours 9 0 100%
Golgari 6 0 100%
Simic 5 0 100%
Azorious 2 0 100%
4 Colour 1 0 100%
Mono White 1 0 100%
Orzhov 7 2 78%
Selesnya 6 2 75%
Izzet 7 4 64%
Dimir 5 3 63%
Radkos 3 2 60%
Gruul 4 3 57%
Boros 3 5 38%
Tier 1:
Radkos (13-2)
Whats there not to love. Great cheap removal, decent cheap creatures, solid 3 drops, good removal, mana and a nice curve. I value the Black Shrine highly, it is a solid playable on its own, and played on T2 generally represents a 10 point life swing. I will gladly pick up a Black Shrine early, or speculate on a Red shrine for the same purpose. Here is the draft pick by pick

Orzhov (12-0)
Once again, another deck with a solid curve, a good mana base, and good removal. Yes, i got a bomb in Demonic Embrace in this deck, but I will take this opportunity to talk about a few thoughts. First, I have found Lifelink to be highly valuable, especially if you have a way to put counters on creatures, or pump your team. Basri's Acoltyte was always known as a solid card, but Blood Gutton has over performed for me. The same can be said about Anointed Chorister (not in this deck), especially if you have a way to pump (this is the only type of deck I will sometimes play Warded Battlements). Also, Pestilent Haze is a great card, that I found being passed alot. Generally, i want two of these. If I get two, I can build my deck in a way that benefits me more than my opponents. Remember symmetrical effects benefit those who play them most. And with two, your odds of finding them against aggro go way up. Here is the draft pick by pick. One thing though, I have noticed too many players trying to force the gain 3 life cards, and end up with decks that come up short. It is much better to draft a solid deck, and if you trigger the abilities, count it as a bonus.
Tier 1.5

Dimir Re-animator (5-3)
Dimir Control (7-2)
There are two builds of Dimir. A controlling version, centered around cheap removal, Pestilent Haze, and finishing them off however possible. The second version is Re-animator. It took me 3 tries at it, but I learned something each time. It is definitely one of the more challenging archetypes to construct, but when you get there its solid. Here are the drafts pick by pick, Control and Re-animator

Boros (5-3)*
Boros is by far the most aggressive deck in the format, and therefore, is also the most play/ draw dependent of all the archetypes. However, with that being said, I find that those premium cheap creatures are being fought over, same with the spells. When its open, its a great deck, but I feel there are generally some drafters trying to force Boros, and therefore its value goes down. Here is the draft pick by pick. The reason for the asterisk beside the record, is within Boros, was my biggest train-wreck draft of the set. Yes, these happen to even the best of us. This also was very early in the set for me. I probably should have went UR, but even then, ya, it was a trainwreck. Feel free to comment on my trainwreck. The other thing to note, is Boros is currently the only record I have a losing matchup against (3-5). When I noticed this, I was tempted to move it to Tier 1. I dug a bit further, and found in G1 I was on the Play only one time, compared to 7 times on the draw.
Tier 2

Izzet (3-3)
Izzet Spells matters is a decent archetype. It has excellent cheap removal. I almost thought that I was going to get a 3-0 with this deck, until I flooded out (how ironic, i had even cut down to 14 lands). But notice what this deck is lacking. I did not see a single Spellgorger Weird, and the only Mistral Singer I saw was P2P1. These are the two most important 3 drops in the deck. Here is the draft. Against Izzet, I am 7-4, which is my 5th toughest of the 2 colour archetypes. I also find this deck to be high variance. If you get there, its a solid deck, but quite often you can fall short.

Gruul (3-0)
With green you never need to worry about top end. But you need to make up for its lack of two drops. That being said, even in this deck, I struggled to get much cheap in Red. However, with 4 pieces of Ramp on Turn 3, and 2 track downs on Turn 2, I was able to cast a 5 or 6 drop on T4 very consistently. The common them of all the green decks ive had and played against, the success is generally because of the early play in the secondary colour. Gruul is also currently my 2nd worst record against (4-3), so it may deserve a bump up.

Selesnya (3-2)
Once again, as above with Gruul, Green decks are dependent upon the early plays of the other colour. GW counters is a solid strategy, especially if you are lucky enough to open a Conclave Mentor. But overall, the strength of these decks depend upon the white cards and possibly rares. My record against this archetype (6-2) almost wants me to bump this down. I did, however also have a 3-0 Bant deck, with the only splash being Lorescale Coatl
Tier 3
Golgari (3-0)
The common theme with green, no good cheap commons. In my experience Solid Green decks rely on the rares, and the other colour. I've been constantly underwhelmed with the green cards. The one downside of GB, is there is so little synergy in this set. The Gold card is Twinblade Assassins, wanting to prioritize killing creatures, but on your turn only. Also, as it comes down at 5 mana, its expensive. Part of me wanted to rate Golgari higher, until I noticed I was 6-0 against it (my best record against any archetype). But overall, I think the Black makes it tier 3.
Tier Unplayable
Simic: Simic has the draw matters theme. So far, I have not been able to draft a successful Simic deck. Simic once again struggles with few early plays. Also, simic has lackluster removal, and no cheap removal. Yes Simic has the draw matters theme, but sometimes just has a hard time pushing through damage. I do think there is a viable mill deck in Simic, however, to have a viable mill deck, it would require at least 2 Teferis Tutelage's. But even then, you gotta survive the early pressure. Part of me wanted to think Simic was better than it is, but I'm just not feeling it. I am also 5-0 against Simic Decks. For Simic to go right, you basically have to be relying on opening solid rares (Jolrael, Mwonvuli Recluse) to make it viable, and I do not like relying on specific rares or mythics to make an archetype viable.
Azorious is the typical fliers deck. The problem that I am finding, is the flyers in this set are just too easy to kill and generally end up on chump duty. Aside from Baneslayer Angel, no UW fliers have a toughness more than 3. ELD had Jubilant Skybonder that made fliers difficult to kill, but there just isnt much to love about the fliers. Also, Red has Turrent Ogre, Green has Gnarled Sage, and Black has Fetid Imp. All cards that are being ran which shut down flying strategies pretty well. Plus in an aggressive format, the loss in P/T stats to gain flying just isn't worth it.


No matter how good you are, you are going to have bad drafts. Maybe this is because you forced something that wasn't there. Maybe you just got the worst luck with packs. Maybe you had bad match-ups. Maybe your draws were terrible. Its easy to make excuses for how a draft went bad. Its a lot more difficult to admit you made mistakes and figure out how to correct them for next time. However, this is the only way you will become a better player. So its only fair that I share my trainwrecks with you (0-2 drops). Hopefully you can learn something from them and figure out what went wrong. Feel free to share your thoughts. They are in order from most recent being #1, to the oldest. Its assumed that both myself, as well as the other drafters got better as the set went on (but by no means guaranteed). If you have questions to me on why you think my trainwreck went off the rails, let me know, you can learn from my failures. However, hopefully you can identify why they just didn't work out based on my information here.

Even my curve is giving me the finger
Trainwreck 1 draft

How would you like your mill today?
Trainwreck 2 draft

How many 4 drops did I say again?
Trainwreck 3 draft

Cheap removal is over-rated
Trainwreck 4 draft

Saved the best for last
Trainwreck 5 draft

Key Tips

1) Be disciplined when you draft, and stick to 2 colours. With minimal fixing in this format, 3 colours just isn't worth it (my record against 3 colour decks is 11-0)
2) Prioritize having a solid curve. This is an aggressive format, you need early plays. 2 drop removal is huge, so remember BREAD when drafting (Bombs, Removal, Evasion, Aggro, Duds). I have found it pretty easy to find 4 and 5 drops, so dont be afraid to take a 2 drop even if it seems mediocre.
3) Lifelink has over-performed for me. Blood Gutton, Anointed Chorister especially. In a race, having a creature that has lifelink gives you a big up against your opponent. And if you get a life matters card, even better, or a way to pump your life link creatures
4) Learn the instant speed cards. Nothing is worse than playing an enchantment on your creature only to have it remove. In limited these plays are almost game ending because card advantage is so hard to come by.
5) This format is more about synergy that bombs. Most bombs are 5 mana+, and if you have a solid deck, you can find a way to beat them.
6) Learn from your mistakes. Record your drafts, use a tracker, and go back and see what you do differently. We all make mistakes, but the best players learn from them and get better. If you went through all my drafts, I guarantee you would find something that I should have done differently, and I'm okay with that. There are many things that I would have done differently. Hindsight is 20-20 after all.
7) Early in a draft, before you have your colours sorted out, if all picks are mediocre, take a land. These can always help splash a bomb if you open it down the road. If you cant cast the card, its pointless having it in your deck.
8) Have fun! This is a game, and you should enjoy it, don't be forcing it. My rule is if I get 3 loses in a row, i go, take a break do something else. Quite often, I will do a draft before bed, but then not build my deck, play any games until the next day. I know this game can feel like a grind for F2P players but take breaks here and there.

Final Thoughts

Overall, I've quite enjoyed this format, and plan on continuing to draft it. At this rate, I may be limited only for this set until rotation shakes up standard. When it comes to drafting, hopefully you have found this helpful or learned something. I am always willing to try and help others, but sometimes I don't know what people are struggling with. Also, if you have resources that you like to use, i can gladly add the links in if people find it helpful. If you found this helpful, or not, let me know as it will influence future posts. Also, if you have questions, ill try to answer as many as I can in the comments, but it may take a day or so.
Best of luck for those of you F2P Players ready to tackle Quick Draft Head on!
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