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Liste des sites web, services et ressources temporairement gratuits pendant la pandémie de COVID-19

Salut,
J'ai lancé un poteau avant-hier pour essayer de regrouper les sites web et les services en ligne qui deviennent temporairement gratuits pendant la pandémie de COVID-19. Le poteau que vous lisez est le résultat de cette liste collaborative. Vous y trouverez tout ce que j'ai trouvé sur le web et toutes les suggestions reçues pour vous aider à passer cette période de confinement. Un grand merci aux airFrançais qui ont participé à cette liste !
N'hésitez pas à ajouter vos liens en commentaire en suivant ces consignes :
J'ai passé la semaine à télétravailler, donc je vais essayer de passer du bon temps "sans écran" avec mes enfants ce week-end. Du coup, je ne vais pas avoir beaucoup de temps pour mettre le poteau à jour au fur et mesure, donc jetez un œil aux commentaires si vous cherchez quelque chose en particulier.
Avertissement ! Certains sites peuvent vous demander un numéro de C.B. Soyez prudents et n'oubliez pas d'annuler un abonnement "gratuit" avant son renouvellement automatique (payant) !
Bon courage et stay safe !
Culture / Cinéma
Lecture / Presse
T.V
Jeux vidéos
Éducation / Vie professionnelle
Occuper les enfants
Création
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NSFW
submitted by alb404 to france [link] [comments]

Tuesday Time Travel December 18th

Week 2 of this series highlighting historical events of the same date on a different year, a hell of a whopper compared to last week's. Discussion is, as always, encouraged! Considering the length and reddit's character limits I've got to post 1963 onward in the comments.

1075 Edith of Wessex, Former Queen of England, Dies

Wikipedia page

1290 Magnus III, King of Sweden, Dies

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1442 Pierre Cauchon, French Catholic Bishop, Organizer of the Trial of Joan of Arc, Dies

Wikipedia page

1499 Rebellion Triggered in Albayzín and Alpujarras in Response to the Forced Conversions of Muslims in Spain.

The increasing mass and forced conversion of Muslims triggered resistance, initially among the urban population of Albayzín (also spelled Albaicín), the Muslim quarter of Granada. The situation was exacerbated by the treatment of elches, former Christians who converted to Islam. Specific clauses in the Treaty of Granada forbade the conversion of the elches back to Christianity against their will, but the treaty allowed for questionings of such converts by Christian clerics, in the presence of Muslim religious authorities. Cisneros used this 'loophole' to summon elches and imprison those who refused to return to Christianity. These efforts were often focused on wives of Muslim men – an emphasis that angered the Muslim population who considered this a violation of their families. On 18 December 1499, as part of this effort, constable Velasco de Barrionuevo and an assistant were taking a female elche from Albayzín for such questioning. When they passed through a square, she shouted that she was being forced to become Christian. The officials were then surrounded by a hostile crowd, and the constable was killed and the assistant managed to escape after being sheltered by a local Muslim woman. This incident escalated into an open revolt. The residents of Albayzín barricaded the streets and armed themselves. An angry crowd marched to Cisneros' house, apparently for an assault. This crowd later dispersed, but over the following days the revolt become more organized. The population of Albayzín elected their own officials and leaders. In the standoff that ensued, the archbishop Hernando de Talavera and the Captain-General Marquis de Tendilla attempted to defuse the situation through negotiations and gestures of good-will. After ten days, the uprising ended as the Muslims handed in their weapons and handed over the constable's killers, who were promptly executed. Subsequently, Cisneros was summoned to the court in Seville to account for his actions, facing a furious Ferdinand. Cisneros however argued that it was the Muslims, not him, who breached the Treaty by engaging in armed rebellion. He convinced Ferdinand and Isabella to declare a collective pardon to the rebels, on condition that they convert to Christianity. Cisneros returned to Granada, which now nominally became a fully Christian city. Although the uprising in Albayzín appeared to be put down and Granada was nominally transformed to a Christian city, the rebellion spread to the countryside. The leaders of the Albayzín uprising fled to the Alpujarra mountains. The inhabitants of the mountains, almost exclusively Muslims, had only accepted Christian rule reluctantly. They quickly rose up in revolts against what they regarded as the violation of the terms of the Treaty of Granada, and because they feared they would suffer the same forced conversions as the residents of Albayzín. By February 1500, 80,000 Christian troops were mobilized to put down the rebellion. By March, King Ferdinand arrived to personally direct the operations.
Wikipedia page#Uprising_in_Albayz%C3%ADn)

1603 First Fleet of the Dutch East India Company Under Admiral Steven van der Haghen Departs for the East-Indies

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1626 Christina, Queen of Sweden, is Born

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1655 The Whitehall Conference Ends With the Determination That There was No Law Preventing Jews from Re-Entering England After the Edict of Expulsion of 1290.

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1774 Empress Maria Theresa expels Jews From Prague, Bohemia and Moravia

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1787 New Jersey Becomes 3rd State to Ratify US Constitution

Politico article

1833 The National Anthem of the Russian Empire, "God Save the Tsar!", is First Performed.

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1849 Henrietta Edwards, Canadian Activist and Author, is Born

She was the eldest of "The Famous Five", along with Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby, who fought to have women recognized as "persons" under the law, and for the woman's right to vote in elections. She was born Henrietta Louise Muir in Montreal. She grew up in an upper-middle-class family that valued culture and religion. Edwards became active in many religious organizations, where she grew disenchanted with old traditions where the exclusion of women was acceptable.
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1851:

Graciano López Jaena, Filipino Revolutionary Journalist, is Born

He was appointed to the San Juan de Dios Hospital as an apprentice. Unfortunately, due to financial problems, he dropped out and returned to Iloilo to practice medicine. During this period, his visits with the poor began to stir feelings about the injustices that were common.[citation needed] At the age of 18 he wrote the satirical story Fray Botod which depicted a fat and lecherous friar. Botod’s false piety "always had the Virgin and God on his lips no matter how unjust and underhanded his acts are." This incurred the fury of the friars. Although the story was not published, a copy circulated in Iloilo but the friars could not prove that López Jaena was the author. He got into trouble for refusing to testify that certain prisoners died of natural causes when it was obvious that they had died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. López Jaena continued to agitate for justice and finally went to Spain when threats were made on his life. López Jaena sailed for Spain in 1880. There he became a leading writer and speaker for Philippine reform. He is remembered by the Filipino people for his literary contributions to the propaganda movement. López Jaena founded the fortnightly newspaper, La Solidaridad.
Wikipedia page

Act for the Abolition of Feudal Rights and Duties in Lower Canada Ascends, Creating a Special Seigneurial Court to Look at How Economic and Property Rights Will Change with Abolition

Queen's University at Kingston .pdf file

1856 J. J. Thomson, English Physicist and Academic, Nobel Prize Laureate, is Born, He Goes On to Discover Isotopes, the Electron, and Invents the Mass-Spectrometer.

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1863 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is Born, Who's Death Would Spark the First World War

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1870 Hector Hugh Munro, AKA Saki, British Short Story Writer, is Born

Better known by the pen name Saki, and also frequently as H. H. Munro, was a British writer whose witty, mischievous and sometimes macabre stories satirize Edwardian society and culture. He is considered a master of the short story, and often compared to O. Henry and Dorothy Parker. Influenced by Oscar Wilde, Lewis Carroll and Rudyard Kipling, he himself influenced A. A. Milne, Noël Coward and P. G. Wodehouse. Besides his short stories (which were first published in newspapers, as was customary at the time, and then collected into several volumes), he wrote a full-length play, The Watched Pot, in collaboration with Charles Maude; two one-act plays; a historical study, The Rise of the Russian Empire, the only book published under his own name; a short novel, The Unbearable Bassington; the episodic The Westminster Alice (a parliamentary parody of Alice in Wonderland); and When William Came, subtitled A Story of London Under the Hohenzollerns, a fantasy about a future German invasion and occupation of Britain. Munro was homosexual at a time when in Britain sexual activity between men was a crime. The Cleveland Street scandal (1889), followed by the downfall of Oscar Wilde (1895), meant "that side of Munro's life had to be secret".
Wikipedia page

1878:

Joseph Stalin, Georgian-Russian Marshal and Politician, 4th Premier of the Soviet Union, is Born

Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December [O.S. 6 December] 1878. He was the son of Besarion Jughashvili and Ekaterine Geladze. Besarion was a shoemaker and owned his own workshop; it was initially a financial success, but later fell into decline. The family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years. Besarion became an alcoholic, and drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Father Christopher Charkviani. She worked as a house cleaner and launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had previously achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School. This was normally reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, and singing as a choirboy. He got into many fights, and a childhood friend later noted that Stalin "was the best but also the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems; in 1884, he contracted smallpox and was left with facial pock scars. Aged 12, he was seriously injured after being hit by a phaeton (style of horse-drawn carriage), which was the likely cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. In October 1899, Stalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory. He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory, and co-organised a secret workers' mass meeting for May Day 1900, at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. By this point, the empire's secret police—the Okhrana—were aware of Stalin's activities within Tiflis' revolutionary milieu. They attempted to arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding, living off the donations of friends and sympathizers. Remaining underground, he helped plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities. He continued to evade arrest by using aliases and sleeping in different apartments. In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a Marxist party founded in 1898.
Wikipedia page

Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani Succeeds His Father Mohammed bin Thani as Ruler of the Qatari Peninsula.

He is deemed to have unified all the local tribes by combating external forces, such as the British, Thereby Unifying Qatar. He also earned a considerable degree of autonomy for the tribes of the peninsula.
Wikipedia page

1879 Paul Klee, Swiss-German Artist, is Born.

His Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), Published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance.
Wikipedia page

1884:

A Petition on Métis Grievances is Endorsed by a Committee of French and English Representatives in the Electoral District of Lorne. It is Ultimately Ignored by Ottawa

Canada Channel article scroll to 1884 for info Canadian Encyclopedia article w/ info on the Grievances and the Northwest Rebellion

Emil Starkenstein, Czech Pharmacologist and Co-Founder of Clinical Pharmacology, is Born

Emil Starkenstein was born in the Bohemian (now Czech) town of Poběžovice, (Ronsperg) to Jewish German parents. The family had many members who became local physician. Prof. Starkenstein researched and published a family tree in 1927 which traced his family roots as far back as 1350 and included such figures as R. Benjamin Wolf (1777-1851), R.Eleasar Löw, R. Moses Isserles (1520–72), and several in the Katzenelbogen line, including R.Saul Wahl Katzenelbogen who, according to the glossary of the family tree, 'became king of Poland for one night after the death of Stephen Bathory. Starkstein was killed in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp along with a few hundred refugees from Amsterdam after an incident in which a Dutch Jew resisted a Nazi patrol.
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1890 Edwin Howard Armstrong, American Engineer, Inventor of FM Radio, is Born

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1892 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Ballet "Nutcracker Suite" Premieres in St. Petersburg

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1898 Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat Sets the First Officially Recognized Land Speed Record of 39.245 mph (63.159 km/h) In a Jeantaud Electric Car.

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1899 Peter Wessel Zapffe, Norwegian Philosopher and Author Noted for His Philosophically Pessimistic and Fatalistic View of Human Existence, is Born

Zapffe's view is that humans are born with an overdeveloped skill (understanding, self-knowledge) which does not fit into nature's design. The human craving for justification on matters such as life and death cannot be satisfied, hence humanity has a need that nature cannot satisfy. The tragedy, following this theory, is that humans spend all their time trying not to be human. The human being, therefore, is a paradox. In The Last Messiah Zapffe described four principal defense mechanisms that humankind uses to avoid facing this paradox:
Isolation is "a fully arbitrary dismissal from consciousness of all disturbing and destructive thought and feeling".
Anchoring is the "fixation of points within, or construction of walls around, the liquid fray of consciousness". The anchoring mechanism provides individuals a value or an ideal that allows them to focus their attentions in a consistent manner. Zapffe also applied the anchoring principle to society, and stated "God, the Church, the State, morality, fate, the laws of life, the people, the future" are all examples of collective primary anchoring firmaments.
Distraction is when "one limits attention to the critical bounds by constantly enthralling it with impressions". Distraction focuses all of one's energy on a task or idea to prevent the mind from turning in on itself.
Sublimation is the refocusing of energy away from negative outlets, toward positive ones. The individuals distance themselves and look at their existence from an aesthetic point of view (e.g., writers, poets, painters). Zapffe himself pointed out that his produced works were the product of sublimation.
Zapffe was a prolific mountaineer and took a very early interest in environmentalism. This form of nature conservationism sprung from the intent, not of protecting nature, but to avoid human culturalization of nature.
Wikipedia page

1912 Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Who Would Go On to Command the Tuskegee Airmen, and Eventually Reach 4-Star General, is Born

Davis flew sixty missions in P-39, Curtiss P-40, P-47 and P-51 Mustang fighters. Davis followed in his father's footsteps in breaking racial barriers, as Benjamin O. Davis Sr. was the first African-American general in the United States Army.
Wikipedia article

1913:

The King of Spain Signs a Law Granting Provinces the Right to Group Themselves Into Associations Such as the Catalan Commonwealth

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Willy Brandt, 4th Chancellor of Germany and 1st Social Democrat Chancellor of Germany, is Born

Leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe. Fleeing to Norway and then Sweden during the Nazi regime and working as a left-wing journalist, he took the name Willy Brandt as a pseudonym to avoid detection by Nazi agents, and then formally adopted the name in 1948. Brandt was originally considered one of the leaders of the right wing of the SPD, and earned initial fame as Governing Mayor of West Berlin. He served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor in Kurt Georg Kiesinger's cabinet, and became chancellor in 1969. As chancellor, he maintained West Germany's close alignment with the United States and focused on strengthening European integration in western Europe, while launching the new policy of Ostpolitik aimed at improving relations with Eastern Europe. Brandt was controversial on both the right wing, for his Ostpolitik, and on the left wing, for his support of American policies, including the Vietnam War, and right-wing authoritarian regimes. The Brandt Report became a recognised measure for describing the general North-South divide in world economics and politics between an affluent North and a poor South. Brandt was also known for his fierce anti-communist policies at the domestic level, culminating in the Radikalenerlass (Anti-Radical Decree) in 1972. Brandt resigned as chancellor in 1974, after Günter Guillaume, one of his closest aides, was exposed as an agent of the Stasi, the East German secret service.
Wikipedia page

1915 Fred D. Shepard, an American Physician and Relief Worker, Witness to the Hamidian Massacres, Adana Massacres, and the Armenian Genocide, Known for Saving Many Lives, Dies of Typhus Contracted From Deportees

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1916:

The Battle of Verdun Ends When German Forces Under Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn are Defeated by the French, and Suffer 337,000 Casualties.

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Douglas Fraser, Scottish-American Trade Union Leader and Academic, is Born

Fraser was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on December 28, 1916. His father, Samuel, was an electrician and an active and vocal trade unionist. The family was so poor that his father, who worked at a brewery, would sometimes fuel the family stove with stolen whiskey. Samuel Fraser moved to Detroit, Michigan, while his son was still a young boy, in 1922. Samuel, his mother, Douglas, his sister, and his brother sailed to New York City aboard the SS Cameronia and were inspected at Ellis Island on April 23, 1923. They traveled to their new home in Detroit by train. Douglas was deeply influenced by the Great Depression. His father was out of work for long periods, and he admitted that the poverty and social disorder that he witnessed changed his life. He was president of the United Auto Workers from 1977 to 1983 and an adjunct professor of labor relations at Wayne State University for many years. He is best remembered for helping to save Chrysler from bankruptcy in 1979 by heavily lobbying the US Congress for a loan and convincing workers to make concessions. [Sidenote- Sure sounds like a class traitor]
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1917:

Soviet-Russian-Government Declares Finland Independent

On 18 December (31 December N. S.) the Soviet Russian government issued a decree recognizing Finland's independence, and on 22 December (4 January 1918 N. S.) it was approved by the highest Soviet executive body, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK).
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The 18th Amendment, Authorizing Prohibition of Alcohol, is Approved by the US Congress and Sent to the States for Ratification.

In the House, the vote was 282 to 128, with the Democrats voting 141 in favor and 64 in opposition; and the Republicans voting 137 in favor and 62 in opposition. Four Independents in the House voted in favor and two Independents cast votes against the amendment. It was officially proposed by the Congress to the states when the Senate passed the resolution, by a vote of 47 to 8, the next day, December 18.
Wikipedia page

The Armistice of Erzincan is Signed

The agreement between the Ottoman Empire and the Transcaucasian Commissariat brought peace to the Caucasian and Persian Fronts until the 12th of February. Despite the fact that the Transcaucasian Commissariat still considered itself part of the Russian Republic, who had an armistice with the Ottoman Empire covering those fronts (the Brest-Litovsk armistice), the Ottoman Empire considered the Transcaucasian Commissariat as an independent entity and legal successor to the Russian Empire
Wikipedia page

1918 The Workers' Defense Union (US) is Formally Founded

The group was organized by Industrial Workers of the World organizer Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, working closely with radical trade unionist Fred Biedenkapp. Both would subsequently become active members of the Workers (Communist) Party of America. The WDU became a local affiliate the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920.
Wikipedia page

1922:

A Three Day Terror Campaign Targeting the Local Labour Movement in the Italian City of Turin, Known as the 1922 Turin Massacre, Perpetrated by Fascist Squads Led by Piero Brandimarte, Begins, Killing 11 and Seriously Injuring 10.

Wikipedia page

Esther Lederberg, American Microbiologist, is Born

A pioneer of bacterial genetics. Notable contributions include the discovery of the bacterial virus λ, the transfer of genes between bacteria by specialized transduction, the development of replica plating, and the discovery of the bacterial fertility factor F (F plasmid). Lederberg also founded and directed the now-defunct Plasmid Reference Center at Stanford University, where she maintained, named, and distributed plasmids of many types, including those coding for antibiotic resistance, heavy metal resistance, virulence, conjugation, colicins, transposons, and other unknown factors. Lederberg was excluded from writing a chapter in the 1966 book Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology, a commemoration of molecular biology. According to the science historian Prina Abir-Am, her exclusion was "incomprehensible" because of her important discoveries in bacteriophage genetics. Abir-Am attributed her exclusion in part to the sexism that prevailed during the 1960s.
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1923 International Zone of Tangier Set Up in Morocco

The Tangier International Zone (Arabic: منطقة طنجة الدولية‎ Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, French: Zone Internationale de Tanger, Spanish: Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373-square-kilometre (144 sq mi) international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956. The zone was governed in accordance with the Tangier Protocol, although the Sultan of Morocco retained nominal sovereignty over the zone and jurisdiction over the native population. The international zone of Tangier had, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants and 150,000 by 1950.
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1925 The 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party is Held in Moscow

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1932 Augustin Alfred Joseph Paul-Boncour, Member of the Republican-Socialist Party, Takes Office as 71st Prime-Minister of France

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1934 Boris Volynov, Russian Colonel, Engineer, and Astronaut, is Born

A Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was the first Jewish cosmonaut to enter space, preceding Judith Resnik in the United States.
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1935 The Lanka Equal Society Party, a Sri Lankan Trotskyist Party, is Founded. It Would be Expelled from the 4th International in 1964 After Joining a Coalition Government

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1936 The Public Order Act of 1936, An Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Passed to Control Extremist Political Movements, Receives Royal Assent

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1939:

The Battle of the Heligoland Bight, the First Named Air Battle of the War, Takes Place, Beginning the Longest Air Campaign of the War, the Defense of the Reich

On 3 September 1939, the United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany after the German invasion of Poland, which started the European War. The British did not assist Poland by land or sea, but over the ensuing weeks, RAF Bomber Command flew several missions against German targets. A number of these air raids were directed at Kriegsmarine (German Navy) warships in German ports to prevent their use in the Battle of the Atlantic. With the front lines static between September 1939 and May 1940, a period known as the "Phoney War" set in, with little fighting on land or in the air. However, at sea, German U-boat (submarine) forces were taking a considerable toll of Allied shipping. The Air Ministry decided to launch an attack on German surface ships to prevent them supporting the U-boats in the North Atlantic. On 18 December 1939, a force of three RAF bomber squadrons was sent to engage German ships in the Heligoland Bight and sink or damage as many as possible.
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The Battle of Kunlun Pass Begins, Eventually Resulting the First Major Victory for the Chinese Army Since the Battle of Wuhan in October 1938, at the Cost of 23,816 Chinese and 8,100+ Japanese Casualties.

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Hitler Sends Birthday Telegram to Stalin

Mr. JOSEPH STALIN,
Please accept my most sincere congratulations on your sixtieth birthday. I take this occasion to tender my best wishes. I wish you personally good health and a happy future for the peoples of the friendly Soviet Union.
ADOLF HITLER
Merely a year later he would sign a directive to invade the Soviet Union.
WW2 Today Article

Ernest Lawson, Canadian-American Painter, Drowns

A member of The Eight, a group of artists who formed a loose association in 1908 to protest the narrowness of taste and restrictive exhibition policies of the conservative, powerful National Academy of Design. Depressed and in declining health, he drowned under mysterious circumstances in 1939, apparently while swimming on Miami Beach. Friends wondered if Lawson's death had been a suicide.
Wikipedia page

1940:

Adolf Hitler Signs Directive 21, "Operation Barbarossa," the First Operational Order for the Invasion of the Soviet Union

Wikipedia page (scroll to 1940)

1941:

Japanese Troops Land on Hong Kong

On 15 December, the Japanese began systematic bombardment of the island's North Shore. Two demands for surrender were made on 13 and 17 December. When these were rejected, Japanese forces crossed the harbour on the evening of 18 December and landed on the island's north-east. They suffered only light casualties, although no effective command could be maintained until the dawn came. That night, approximately 20 Commonwealth gunners were executed at the Sai Wan Battery despite having surrendered.[citation needed] There was a further massacre of prisoners, this time of medical staff, in the Salesian Mission on Chai Wan Road. In both cases, a few men survived.
Wikipedia page

Dmitry Fyodorovich Lavrinenko, the Highest Scoring Tank Ace of the Allies During World War II (By Kill Frequency), is Killed in Action

Commanding the new T-34/76, he achieved 58 tanks and self-propelled guns eliminations in 1941 during Operation Barbarossa. Lavrinenko was killed just after freeing the village of Goryuny and knocking out his 52nd tank. Immediately after the action the Germans began shelling the village intensively. Lavrinenko got out of his T-34 near the village and tried to reach the commander of the 17th Armoured Brigade, Lt Col N. Chernoyarov, in order to report his victory but he was killed by a German mortar shell fragment. On May 5, 1990 he was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Wikipedia page

The War Powers Act of 1941, Increasing Federal Power During World War II, is Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Wikipedia page

1943:

A Mass Execution of 118 Civilians by the Nazi SS, in Reprisal Against Greek Resistance Known as the Drakeia Massacre, Occurs in the Village of Drakeia on Mount Pelion

Wikipedia page

1944 Korematsu v. United States, a Landmark United States Supreme Court Case Concerning the Constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, Which Ordered Japanese Americans into Internment Camps During World War II Regardless of Their Citizenship, is Decided in Favor of the Government

Wikipedia page

1946:

Bantu Stephen Biko, South African Activist, is Born

Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. His ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk. In 1977, Biko broke his banning order by travelling to Cape Town, hoping to meet Unity Movement leader Neville Alexander and deal with growing dissent in the Western Cape branch of the BCM, which was dominated by Marxists like Johnny Issel. Biko drove to the city with his friend Peter Jones on 17 August, but Alexander refused to meet with Biko, fearing that he was being monitored by the police. Biko and Jones drove back toward King William's Town, but on 18 August they were stopped at a police roadblock near Grahamstown. Biko was arrested for having violated the order restricting him to King William's Town. Unsubstantiated claims have been made that the security services were aware of Biko's trip to Cape Town and that the road block had been erected to catch him. Jones was also arrested at the roadblock; he was subsequently held without trial for 533 days, during which he was interrogated on numerous occasions. The security services took Biko to the Walmer police station in Port Elizabeth, where he was held naked in a cell with his legs in shackles. On 6 September, he was transferred from Walmer to room 619 of the security police headquarters in the Sanlam Building in central Port Elizabeth, where he was interrogated for 22 hours, handcuffed and in shackles, and chained to a grille. Exactly what happened has never been ascertained, but during the interrogation he was severely beaten by at least one of the ten security police officers. He suffered three brain lesions that resulted in a massive brain haemorrhage on 6 September. Following this incident, Biko's captors forced him to remain standing and shackled to the wall. The police later said that Biko had attacked one of them with a chair, forcing them to subdue him and place him in handcuffs and leg irons. Biko was examined by a doctor, Ivor Lang, who stated that there was no evidence of injury on Biko. Later scholarship has suggested Biko's injuries must have been obvious. He was then examined by two other doctors who, after a test showed blood cells to have entered Biko's spinal fluid, agreed that he should be transported to a prison hospital in Pretoria. On 11 September, police loaded him into the back of a Land Rover, naked and manacled, and drove him 740 miles (1,190 km) to the hospital. There, Biko died alone in a cell on 12 September 1977. According to an autopsy, an "extensive brain injury" had caused "centralisation of the blood circulation to such an extent that there had been intravasal blood coagulation, acute kidney failure, and uremia". He was the twenty-first person to die in a South African prison in twelve months, and the forty-sixth political detainee to die during interrogation since the government introduced laws permitting imprisonment without trial in 1963.
Wikipedia page

Steven Spielberg, American Director, Producer, and Screenwriter, Co-Founder of DreamWorks, is Born

Wikipedia page

1949 Bulgarian Parliamentary Elections are Held, the First Legislative Elections Held Under Undisguised "Communist" Rule.

With all meaningful opposition having been destroyed, voters were presented with a single list from the Fatherland Front, dominated by the Bulgarian Communist Party. According to official figures, almost 4.7 million people turned out to vote and only 980 of them voted against the list, while another 109,963 ballots were invalid or blank. Voter turnout was reportedly 98.9 percent.
Wikipedia page

1950:

Harry S. Truman Establishes the Nevada Test Site

Wikipedia page

First Canadian Troops Arrive in Korea

Radio Canada article

1956 Japan Becomes 69th Member of the UN

Nice.
Wikipedia article

1957 World's 1st Full Scale Nuclear Power Plant Begins to Generate Electricity, at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania

Wikipedia page

1958:

Project SCORE, World’s First Communications Satellite Launched from Cape Canaveral

Launched aboard an American Atlas rocket, SCORE provided a first test of a communications relay system in space, as well as the first successful use of the Atlas as a launch vehicle. It captured world attention by broadcasting a Christmas message via shortwave radio from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower through an on-board tape recorder.
Wikipedia page

Niger Gains Autonomy Within French Community

18 December 1958 marks the founding of the Republic and creation of the Presidency of the Republic of Niger, following the constitutional changes of the French Fifth Republic, and the elections of 4 December 1958 held across The French Colonial possessions. Nigeriens consider that date to be the founding of their national institutions. Between 18 December 1958 and 3 August 1960, Niger remained a semi-autonomous Republic within the French Community. At the beginning of 1960 a revision of the French Community allowed membership of independent states, and on 28 July the Nigerien Legislative Assembly became the Nigerien National Assembly: Independence was declared on 3 August 1960.
Wikipedia page#Importance_of_date)

The Bell XV-3 Tiltrotor, an Experimental VTOL Aircraft, Makes the First True Mid-Air Transition from Vertical Helicopter-Type Flight to Fully Level Fixed Wing Flight

Wikipedia page

1961 India Annexes Portuguese Colonies of Goa, Daman & Diu

The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961. By 5:00 in the afternoon, all but the capital had been taken. The Portuguese warship NRP Afonso de Albuquerque traded fire with the Indian Navy ship INS Betwa and was destroyed, with five of the crew killed. The Portuguese Governor-general, Manuel António Vassalo e Silva, declined to follow a cabled order from Portugal's Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar that prohibited surrender and closed with "Our soldiers or sailors must conquer or die." Depending on the view, this action is referred as the "Liberation of Goa" or the "Invasion of Goa."
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1962 USSR Performs Nuclear Tests at Novaya Zemlya with Yields of 110kt and 69kt

Nice.
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Second speech. The social duty of the present. (2)

Standing at this point, I anxiously ask you with solemnity: do you want to return to the banner of Lassalle, the faultless banner of the great German patriot, or do you want to remain clinging at the coattails of the French, forgetting Wörth, Gravelotte and Sedan?
Do you want Lassalle or the fatherlandless heroes of The International?
You shout: Lassalle!
Good, then I’ll continue. If you wouldn’t have shouted Lassalle with this unanimity, which honors you to the highest degree, then I would’ve turned my back to you, and never appear to you again. I would’ve had the consciousness, to have fulfilled my duty, and withdraw myself with dried-up compassion to my individuality that totally satisfies all my needs.
Thus, I continue and I start the continuation of my address with the question: What does the German worker have to do on the purely political domain – we will discuss the social domain later – if he wants to follow his great role models Fichte and Lassalle, what does the German worker have to do, in order to help the mission of his fatherland?
What the German worker has to do, before everything, is that he completely gives up his enmity towards the with the blood of Germans attained, valuable German Empire. And not only does he have to give up this enmity, but he must heat up to the purest love for the German State. He must protect this young Empire, like the mother her child in the cradle: with love, devotion, and ready to sacrifice.
He must dedicate every drop of blood in his veins to this young German State, dedicate all thoughts to it. He must fuel the sparks of natural instinct of patriotism to the wildly blazing flames of the most conscious, consuming love for the fatherland.
Finally, he must ruthlessly beat up everyone, who insults, belittles or even wants to betray this young German Empire. And if such a scoundrel would be as big and powerful as the giant Goliath and he, who stands with holy anger up to him, as little as David – may he be consoled: the spirit of Fichte and Lassalle would lead his arm and the giant will fall.
But now the spirit of Lassalle comes to us with the serious demand, that we are on the purely political domain no foolish dreamers. We therefore have to determine, what the main goal is on the purely political domain of our time of a German worker.
I remind you of our past strain of thoughts. I’ve shown you, that the movement of the European people’s is the result of all individual movements. This you must hold onto. Ever since the German Empire has been created, the movement of the European mankind is an essentially different one from what is was before. No wonder! Where before the shallow, small river of the German Confederation streamed into the general movement of our part of the world, now the roaring, churning floods of the German Empire determine the course of the whole.
I furthermore remind you, that we live in a time, where the European nations are still strictly separated states with particular interests, specific languages, specific customs, specific education of the heart and mind. The time, where all these sharp contrasts will be polished, and where the infamous herd will cast its shadows across the earth, lies still far away in the future: Not what will be, but what factually is, what has become in the totally necessary historical development, that must be kept in mind. You must hold onto the real content of our time and you shouldn’t think about the possible content of the following century, no, not even the next decade, if you don’t want to be the most curseworthy, narrow-minded dreamers which the sun has ever shined upon.
Now, what does the present political situation of Europe teach us? It teaches us, that all the great political questions, without exceptions, can only be solved by the sword. The interests are too different, to be reconciled in a peaceful way. Even if in essence there are only three interests, the interest of the Slavic, the Germanic and the Romance people’s, – that is nevertheless enough, to enclose the thinker in an atmosphere of gun smoke.
I repeat it, German workers: these relations are real relations, that are as real as rocks and will vanish as little by the sighs and pious wishes of kind-hearted utopists, as the Alps, if they’re blown at. I repeat furthermore: the more powerfully you serve the German Empire in this battle, the more you’ll accomplish for the whole mankind, of which the movement is in essence but one.
I am well aware, German workers, that the German youth, with very few exceptions, fulfills its military duty only with the greatest opposition. On this issue I’ve had experiences, that broke my heart: and in my memory my eye can find not but a single case of complete satisfaction. But that should, must become different. Who can take offense at it, if one thinks about the fact, that you have no national goal, that warms you, that you don’t know what a high mission Germany has to accomplish, and that you therefore necessarily have to follow a path, which has been indicated to you by fabulously stupid or unscrupulous leaders? But now you have no excuse anymore, as I have opened your eyes and revealed the truth. Now you have a goal: the within the boundaries of the German Empire residing ideal state, the in the boundaries of the German Empire cloaked Empire of the Future, a goal, which must, if you’ve grabbed it with clear mind, ignite your heart like a streak of lightning. Now you have no excuse anymore, for I’ve told you, that the salvation of humanity depends on your glowing dedication to the German Empire. I’ve proven it to you, in a way that a child should be able to understand it.
I cannot have you take a look at my private life here. I therefore ask you, to believe me on my word of honor, that nobody has more right than I have, to demand from you, to provide with full love your power to the national army, for I have voluntarily, absolutely voluntarily made the sacrifice to this national army, which you make with grudging heart. I have taken the burden of military service, and indeed the harshest military service in every respect, under circumstances, which can only be borne by he, whose powers are increased tenfold by enthusiasm. This assurance must satisfy you; I can’t be clearer.
But whoever is severe, unforgivingly severe towards himself, he may also demand it from others. And therefore I demand again: bring with great love, with genuine enthusiasm, with flaming heart the severe sacrifice of military duty for the fatherland. If you do this, if you suffer, you serve, – which you should never forget, – humanity, and Lassalle blesses you from the heavens.
Or do you believe perhaps, that Lassalle, if it had been granted to him, to witness the great year 1870, would have opposed Mr. von Bismarck? He would hold a lecture for you, compared to which all his important speeches, which we are so happy to possess, would seem like a dried-up bouquet compared to a garden-fresh rose. Or do you perhaps believe, that Lassalle would attack the in glory born German Empire? He would, like William the Conqueror on English soil, throw himself on this holy German earth and shout: I have you, German Empire, and never, never will I let you go!
The first sentences of your Programme, German Workers, will therefore be:
  1. Pure divine service, i.e. complete dedication to the movement of humanity towards the ideal state.
  2. Germany, Germany above everything.
  3. Enthusiastic military duty.
To these sentences I add another one, but as it were between brackets, for you’re not called to practice high politics, which you should leave to your representatives in the Reichstag; the sentence:
         The whole of Germany it should be;
or in the words of Lassalle:
The state-concept Austria must be crushed, destroyed, torn to shreds, annihilated – scattered to the four winds! (The Italian War, 30.)
In order to keep these four demands, which I recommend to you, always in mind and heart, German workers, I recommend it, that you never let a meeting pass, without having sung with powerful voice these two genuine folk songs:
What is the German’s fatherland?
Is it Prussia, is it Swabia?
Is it where the vines blossom on the Rhine?
Is it where the gull moves on the Belt?
Oh no! No! No!
Our fatherland must be bigger!

The whole Germany shall it be,
O God from heaven, see within
And give us real German courage,
That we may love it faithfully and well.
That shall it be,
The whole of Germany it should be.
And:
Oh you Germany, I have to march,
Oh you Germany, you give me courage!
My saber I want to swing,
My bullet has to cling,
The blood of the enemy has to flow.

Now, fare well, my lovely!
Don’t cry red the little eyes.
Patiently bear this torment,
I owe my body and life,
They belong first of all to God.

Now good-bye, dear father!
Mother, accept my parting kiss!
Fighting for the fatherland,
Is demanded from me secondly by God,
Parting from you is what I must.

Also a sound has rung
Mightily through mine heart and sense:
Justice and freedom is called the third,
It drives me away from you
Into death and battlefields.
German workers! Promise me, that you will sing these songs consciously, as often as you can. Do you promise it? Very well. Your reward will be the highest good on earth: a warm, satisfied heart.
It is a call for reconciliation, the unification of all parties on the purely political field, which I exclaim here, and be certain, German workers: if Lassalle would live, he would have done it in my place.
You’ve reached the border of an abyss. The trolleys of the social-democracy couldn’t be more lost; they could impossible be more stuck in dung, as is the case today. And why? Because you’ve parted from Lassalle.1
Lassalle said in his address to the workers of Berlin with the deepest indignation:
What would the Progressives [social-liberals from the German Progress Party] say, if I would send a few working men to their meetings, where you’d only interrupt them?
And what have you done? The corpse of Lassalle had barely cooled down, as the expression goes, and already you storm at the meetings of the other parties, waive with clubs and scream like wild beasts.
Lassalle had most strongly admonished you:
Truth and justice, also towards an enemy – and it befits before all the working class, to keep it in mind! – is the first duty of a man.
And what have you done? You have slandered the opponents and showered them with injustice.
Lassalle told you:
All real successes, be it in life or in history, can only be attained through real revamping and reworking, not un-lying [variation of the verb “lying”].
And what have you done? You have slandered the German Empire, and instead of using the attained success as foothold, to swing yourselves to a higher place among the leading nations, you have, seduced by unscrupulous men, glanced at Paris, at a decaying nation. Instead or labor and “revamping”, you’ve thrown away the heavy tool and have run after the motley phantom of world citizenry. You fools! Fried pigeons don’t fly into your mouth – labor has to be done in order to attained the ideal state and its world citizen justice, it cannot be at-lied.
Lassalle said to you:
support other political parties on such points and issues, where there is common interest. (Antwortschreiben, 7.)
You however have in frightful confusion principally opposed every other party. He had implored you:
                            No hate of other parties! Honest struggle!
You however have used every opportunity to make the distance between you and the other parties larger.
You have, in one word, like Peter with the Savior, denied your messiah three times, and indeed as far as we’re now, two times – I will discuss the third time immediately hereafter – you have denied the German patriot Lassalle and the practical politician Lassalle.
Blushes of shame should cover your, anxiety should take hold of you, if you have any conscience; for the consequences of your suicidal behavior haven’t failed to materialize: a child can see it.
Your party is avoided like plague and rightfully. Every good person immediately feels, that all noble feelings have disappeared among you, and only bestial lust is present which measures “by genitals and stomach” the degree of human happiness. If someone from the higher classes wants to help you, then he is obliged to break with weeping and imploring parents, with moaning siblings, because he heads to a certain ruin. When Lassalle was still teaching and fighting, no sacrifice was necessary if one participated in the movement, which carried his noble imprint – but the independent man however, who wants to serve you today, he must be a demigod, i.e. detached from life and the world.
Don’t you know, that there are thousands in the higher classes, who’d gladly like to help you, if only it was possible? I guarantee you, there are many good and just, who’re waiting for the moment, that you break with your false path and return to the teaching of Lassalle. Return, and it will a day of high joy for these nobles, for now they can support you, and your interests.
I know well, which solution circulates among you. It is the third denial of your messiah, and it is: Why should we be conciliatory and be nice to others? If we only wait a bit, then the day will come, where we’ll accomplish in twenty-four hot, bloody hours more work, than with a million conciliatory words in ten years.
You poor fools! You poor deluded ones, who “strain at a gnat and swallow a camel”, who see mirages in your lust!
I repeat the important words of Lassalle:
All real successes, be it in life or in history, can only be attained through real revamping and reworking, not un-lying. (What now? 36.)
What is before everything part of real revamping, is the national soil, which you want to know nothing about. What belongs furthermore to it, are conversations with the leaders of the other parties, who want to be convinced. Do you believe that the late noble [social-liberal Benedikt] Waldeck or the late noble [social-liberal Leopold von] Hoverbeck had a heart of stone? Do you believe that the gentlemen [Eduard] Lasker and [Rudolf] Virchow, the leaders of the both great liberal parties, are insensitive to the sufferings of the people? Show them, that you’re honest people, practical politicians, present them your practical wishes on the firm soil of the fatherland, with the eloquence of a great heart, and not only will they help, but they will be part of your regiment.
To un-lying belongs however before everything the hope for a violent revolution. Do you seriously believe, that our current society fears you? No one fears fantasists, but serious and clever politicians are feared. Open the first arbitrary book on demographics, and you’ll find, that 50 % of the population works in agriculture and at most 25 % in industry. Accordingly, 50 % of the army consist of peasants and 25 % of workers. That the factual ratio in the army is actually, due to your weaker body constitution and the stronger bodies of the rural population, much worse, is not even something which I want to consider. Those 50 % peasants simply do not belong to you, whatever they may be told. And now let us take a look at your own ranks. There is to start only a fraction that belongs to your party, and if you exclude from this fraction those, who have less courage or are shackled by a thousand chains and feelings to the interests of the higher classes, then you’ll be startled at the small number of your unarmed regiments.
Honest labor, German workers! Honest revamping and reworking of the real circumstances, German workers! No un-lying, German workers! Glowing dedication of the divine breath in the world, to the German state in the present, German workers! That I exclaim again, now, that we’ll leave the purely political domain. I exclaim it, equipped only with weapons out of the armory of Lassalle, the founder of your party, your savior. Your movement, which had begun so beautifully and promising, has gone backwards instead of forwards; you’ve got stuck on a false path. Pull yourself together, recognize the false path and return. Then – and only then – you can be victorious, and you will be victorious – this I know.
We enter the social domain.
Remember, German workers, the following moments from my first speech. I demonstrated to you with the words of Lassalle, that the essence of practical activism lies in this, that all power is concentrated to one point. I furthermore showed you, that Lassalle understood this so deeply, that in practice he didn’t even enter the social domain, and instead remained at the purely political demand of universal and direct suffrage.
What was the result of this wise limitation? Complete success. Shortly after Lassalle’s death you were granted the universal and direct suffrage.
This we need to hold onto.
What have you, German workers, obtained thus far on the social domain? If we ignore that, which has been given more out of mercy from the liberal parties and the government than from your merits, then we can say: Nothing.
Why? Here, I want to be lenient with you; for you have no goal, or better: you have a goal, which you’ve inherited from Lassalle, but it was not the right goal. If he had remained alive, then he too would, be certain of this, have given up the demand for credit by the state and put up a more practical goal.
The question is: Why is credit by the state unobtainable?
The answer is: If credit by the state would be granted, then a competition with the ruling capital would be completely impossible; the factory owners would need to yield to you, Lassalle was either mistaken on this issue, or kept it secret as a very clever man. I regard the latter as more probable.
It will be clear to you, German workers, that shortly after the state would have given you the methods, for you to organize yourselves, the capital would have to offer its factories to you; otherwise there would be simply no workers anymore, to work with the machines. The government knows this, or better: the bourgeoisie knows this, and the bourgeoisie is still the more powerful force in the state, yes, it forms in fact the hegemony. To grant state credit to you in a legal manner, would in dry words be the suicide of the bourgeoisie, and you’ll understand, that the bourgeoisie would have to be tired of life, if they’d choose to end with their own hand their lifes. Don’t fool yourselves, the bourgeoisie is not only not disgusted by life, it is extremely hungry for life.
With the current factual power relations in the German state, the demand of credit by the state is totally unrealizable, completely hopeless. Serious people however don’t concern themselves with impossible things. As little as a part of the moon or a part of the sun can be attained, despite the deepest desires and endeavors, this little can credit by the state be obtained through the most powerful peaceful activism. You therefore have to enter a new path, i.e. you have to give yourself a practical goal, a goal, that impassions and at the same time doesn’t urge the bourgeoisie to commit suicide.
This new goal, German workers, we don’t need to find it first; I have given it to you, and at the same time as a warning to the circles to which I belong, in my main work: “The Philosophy of Salvation.” I noted that the only means whereby the German people can solve the social question, is the conciliation between capital with labor, and lawful force must achieve this conciliation, by letting the workers profit in the same proportion as the capital from the revenue of the enterprise.
This desire is eminently practical, because everyone feels, first of all the factory owners, that something must happen for you, that the eternal strife, the terrible resentment on both sides, that the itself in strikes manifesting fruitless, resultless wrestling has to stop, and because it is, as I said, the only means, which can be accepted by both sides. The factory owners can accept it, because they bring a relatively small sacrifice, and you, German workers, can accept it, because now a finally one half of a good, sweet egg will be given to you, whereas right now you have an empty shell.
If it is accepted, then with a magic touch all these things vanish:
  1. The gap between employers and workers, the hate between the classes;
  2. the strikes, which, as you have obviously seen, have nu success but keep the agitation alive;
  3. the crises and their terrible consequences;
  4. the social question.
On the other hand, on the scene of social life, appear:
  1. the successful cooperation, i.e. the harmonic cooperation of capital with labor;
  2. the most beautiful education of heart and mind of everbody.
This method, German workers, does not need to be tested: it has already undergone the test of fire. Various factory owners have with astonishing success let their workers share in their profits, even though the share of the workers was minimal. So this is only about carrying on from existing conditions, to make progress on it.
I give you this goal with eye on a new, sane and – be certain of this – also successful, peaceful agitation. It will be as successful, as Lassalle’s agitation for universal and direct suffrage.
Closely connected with the conciliation between capital and labor, is, as I already noted, education. Your share in the profit of the enterprise, will make it possible for you, to send your children to school for longer hours, as you won’t need their help anymore.
Meanwhile, not much is accomplished with that, and as I am no fried of quacky half-medicine, but a friend of radical cures, I extend your peaceful and legal agitation, besides the demand for a share in the profits, to another one, which I already determined in my main work: unconditional scientific education for all. I emphasize again the word scientific.The primary schools must only be preparative schools for all German children, and all German children must be able, according to their capabilities and wishes of the parents, be able to go institutions of higher education. Even if the scientific education for all can only be gradually be realized, then that path that leads to it must nevertheless decisively be entered, and all methods, that accelerate the achieve of the goal, must immediately be used.
Both – hold onto this, German workers – both: The conciliation of capital with labor and the universal, free scientific education are obtainableon the path of a legal, peaceful agitation.
And thus I exclaim to you with the words of Lassalle: Start “a legal and peaceful, but an incessant, relentless agitation” for the introduction of profit sharing of the enterprises with the workers and free scientific education!
Repeat this call in every working place, in every town, in every house. May the workers of the city let their higher insight and education pass onto the rural workers. Debate, discuss it, everywhere, every day, incessantly, like the great English agitation against the Corn Laws, in peaceful, public meetings, as well as in private encounters
about the necessity of the sharing the profits of the enterprises with the workers and free scientific education!
The more the echo of your voices resounds millionfold, the more irresistible its pressure becomes.
And again:
Repeat every day, tirelessly the same, again the same, always the same. The more often it gets repeated, the more pervasive it becomes, the more powerful its force grows.
The whole art of practical success lies in this: in the concentration of all power, at all times, upon one single point – upon the most important point, and in turning neither to the right nor to the left. Don’t look either to the right or to the left, be deaf to all
what isn’t called scientific Bildung2 and legal conciliation of capital with labor.
German workers! Such an agitation can’t fail. If you scream: Bildung, then countless noble hearts in the higher classes will tremble with sympathy. The desire for Bildung in your dark hearts is the true cause of the complete social question: it is the noble kernel of this whole question and this noble kernel – I wager my whole existence for this prophecy – will, if you step forward to them, in a pure manner, without low intentions, lead thousands and thousands among them to your justified cause. You have no idea, what an amount of justice and goodness is slumbering in the higher classes. A wild scream: Bildung! from your mouth, and these forces will be freed as if through sorcery, and thousands and thousands of strong arms, thousands and thousands of gentle hands will help you. Not all factory owners are cold-hearted, brutal, simple egoists; and even if this would be the case – do the higher classes consist only of factory owners? I’ll say it boldly: the majority of the factory owners has barely higher intellectual Bildung than you have, no, they’re even worse than you, for as Lassalle rightly said:
knowing badly or barely, separates more from the teachings of science and the capability to absorb them, than to know nothing at all.
On the other hand all genuinely gebildete people in the higher classes are not at all immediately involved, and barely mediately, with industry. They can say about themselves, what the University of Paris declared once in the Middle Ages:
that they are the science, of which everyone knows, that it is completely unselfish, that it is not its practice, to have offices or profits, nor to concern itself with anything but their studies; but because of this it is their duty to speak, if the situation demands it.
These, to call them such, free powerful intelligences, belong to you from the moment on, that you enter the path of genuine patriotism and quit a path, which a decent man cannot choose.
What did I say about a genuine agitation in my first speech? I said:
With every true and genuine agitation it is first of all about generating an atmosphere. All members which constitute the body of the state must feel, that something new is in the air. This new thing follows them to the darkest corners in their homes; it has become an element in the air, which they breath in; it accompanies them in their public life; it sits next to them during breakfast and lunch; it sits next to them during work; it accompanies them in theatre, in concerts, during balls; they go to bed with it, they stand up with it.
While I repeat this, I say to you: the sooner you start the new agitation, the better. Be deaf and blind for everything else; concentrate your whole power on these both points alone, petition the Emperor, petition Prince Bismarck, petition the academies, the universities, petition all the German princes, all parliaments; let your representatives in the Reichstag formulate precise proposals and let propose them again and again; call on them to begin talks with the leaders of the other parties, Mr. Windthorst [leader of the Catholic Centre Party] not excluded, so that your proposals find great support. Speak with words, speak by looks, speak by gestures; say always the same, always the same: then your agitation will succeed, thus it must succeed.
Finally, I notice you on another point on the social domain.
The lawful sharing of the profits with the workers will gradually transform the factories into worker cooperatives. The worker cooperatives are obliged to publicize their balance sheet, and therefore the state will obtain during the course of time the clearest view on the income of all who’re affiliated with industry. From this follows with necessity that a completely new tax code will follow, one that relies on income tax.
It is therefore my opinion, that a tax reform should for now not be part of an agitation. This would first of all go against the main principle of a activism, the principle to concentrate all power on one point, there would be a splitting of your power, which is always an evil. Secondly, Lassalle was regarding indirect taxation, which increases the prices of basic needs, trapped in a rare deception, as I will demonstrate right now.
The iron law of wages is known to you. You know, that the average wage of a worker is determined by the cost of living, that is needed in an area for remaining alive and having children.
Now, the more basic needs are taxed, the higher your average wage must become, and inversely, the less basic needs are taxed, the more your average wage must decrease. You see therefore clearly, that in essence, indirect taxation can leave you cold; for only if you’re unemployed the higher prices would be a problem, but if you’re unemployed you’d have enormous problems anyway.
So let us assume that only a progressive income tax would exist in the German state, then salt, bread, beer, meat, spirit, coffee, tobacco etc. would due to the abolition of indirect taxation become significantly cheaper. Under these circumstances you could feed yourself and your family for less money. But what would the immediate consequence be? The iron law of wages would immediately control the situation again, i.e. the average wage of a worker would sink.
Lassalle mainly used indirect taxation, to show your misery, to show it unabashedly. I believe that also in this case, just as with the state credit, Lassalle well recognized his error, but, as an eminently practical man, didn’t want to discard indirect taxation as an excellent means for agitation. He courageously used it all the more, because he knew very well the ignorance and the poor judgement-power of his opponents.
On the other hand, I recommend it that your representatives decidedly oppose the way estates are sold in Russia. Namely, in Prussia estates are parceled out and, despite all the obstacles, small landowners created. The government acts hereby under the pressure of the liberal parties that want to stem emigration.
I think, however, that it’s about time, that a new spirit is cast into the completely untenable farming methods, the spirit of associations. It is known to all thinking men in all parties, that the farming methods have to be fundamentally revised, i.e. just like the small workshops were replaced by big factories.
Now, if the Prussian government would, instead of parceling out the estates, lease them to rural workers who’ve associated themselves, providing the enterprises with the necessary movable and unmovable inventory, then also in agriculture capital would factually be reconciled with labor; a legion of fire would be created, which would with geometrical progress take over the complete agriculture and produce a state of things, of which the glorious effects would be incalculable.
I energetically move your attention to this exceedingly important point. Nothing is lost yet; for the parcels can simply be reunified under their current owners.
Here again, it is only carrying on existing conditions. In the Prussian province Saxony for example, where an extraordinary sound sense reigns, many sugar factories exist, of which the owners are associated rich farmers and landowners. The factories are thus a workers cooperative, which is not astonishing, but astonishing is the success, which follows from the combined processing of the ground that belongs to the factories. In the areas where the factories possess no land, the shareholders are obliged to bring a certain amount of beets, which leads, as you see, actually to the same situation, for in practice to every factory belongs a certain amount of land, which is made extraordinarily fertile by the excellent fertilizer of the factory.
I emphasized above, that the state should only lease the estates, and not sell them, which you really need to hold onto; for the highest endeavor of the social-democracy should be, that not only the property of the state does not only decrease, but expands more and more.
In the further course of this agitation, the state should also be pressured to let you profit from the revenues from mines.
Finally, German workers, I plead you, to clearly absorb, what consequences the conciliation of capital with labor in Germany will have for the whole world; because from these consequences you will clearly understand, how only he who dedicates himself with his whole soul to the fatherland, can actually accomplish great things for humanity.
I have already set out to you, that the movement of the whole mankind, results from the movement of all single states, resp. all humans. In the darkest ancient history it was possible, for a people to have an isolated development of culture. Today that is impossible. All civilized nations of the whole earth stand in the deepest interconnection, mutually influence each other and above them floats the international science: the only real and justified Internationale.
Wherever in a state progress is made, there the complete civilized mankind has made progress. As the poet says:
Light in the sky won’t be dispersed,
Nor sunrise eliminated
By purple mantles or black cassocks.
Sooner or later – always the states must follow the most developed ones. If you would attain with your incessant agitation the conciliation between capital in labor in Germany, which would undoubtedly be accomplished, then with the necessity of the laws of nature, the conciliation of capital with labor must equally be established in France, England, Austria, Italy, Denmark, Belgium etc.
Therefore: Onwards, German workers! If you exclusively devote yourselves to the young German Empire, then you work, like no other people, for the complete humanity, or with other words: the more you’re glowing patriots, the more you’re genuine citizens of the world. If you romanticize with the ideal, which can only become real in the farthest future, and sit back and do nothing, then you betray not only the fatherland, but also humanity, of which the ideals can due to your insane inactivity can perhaps only be accomplished a full century later.
Real revamping of current situations, German workers! honest reworking of current relations, German workers! – those are your ideals. Let that miserable, wicked un-lying be banned from your senses, from your hearts.
And now still more one thing. I hope, that I’ve put forward a character image of Lassalle which, because it rests upon the truth, which is eventually always victorious, may get hold of your hearts. This clear, lucid image in your souls will lead to great deeds. You will aspire to be worthy to this great dead, you will aspire to attain his heavenly height.
In this aspiration, nothing can help you more than the works of Lassalle. I have already told you, that every writer puts the best part of his mind in his works. Sadly enough, your leaders haven’t recognized the importance, which the words of the master have. I miss with regret a worthy complete edition of his popular works. Create for yourselves, German workers, a Bible of the Workers, which you can take and read at every free moment. Debate its main sentences, enlighten yourselves about the high meaning that lies in it, and print them into your soul. Let everyone contribute to it according to their income. I am willing, besides a contribution in money, to become editor. I would print the most important sentences with big letters, so that those among you, who’ve few time, can nevertheless absorb the essence of Lassalle’s mind in their blood. The complete edition of Lassalle’s popular works is an affair of honor for the German worker; it will be a beautiful sign of your gratitude towards the immortal deed of our great dead friend, that he has raised the consciousness of class among you, that he has made you a something from a nothing, and has led you to the path, where at the end humans will finally be human.
I have spoken to you as a completely free, independent man. Not only will I be ceaselessly attacked in the powerful circles to which I belong for these free words, but also in your circles. To this, I can only answer with the proud sentence of the peasants of Lower Saxony:
What ask I for men –
God helps me.
My words will fall in hundreds of hearts on stony land, but on the other hand also ignite flames in thousands of hearts; for all-mighty is the truth and she will triumph. My words are born from the power of the truth, from the power of a German patriot and the power of a practical politician, who calmly puts his hand on what is nearby while the eye of the mind refreshes itself at the light blue sky faraway. My words live and will activate. No power on earth can stifle or suppress them. They are born with necessity, with necessity they have entered the flow of the things, with necessity they will maintain themselves there. One can rattle under the iron grip of the truth, but one cannot free oneself from the hand of the truth.
And thus, summarizing everything, I exclaim to you, at last:
          Be Germans, only Germans!
          Be practical politicians, practical social-democrats, honest workers!
          Be death-defying soldiers!
submitted by YuYuHunter to Mainlander [link] [comments]

General info and list of exchanges for BUBBLETONE

We directly connect mobile network operators and end users globally on our blockchain-based marketplace. With Bubble Tone Blockchain, travelers can swiftly become legitimate local customers of any foreign operator in the country they are traveling to. They dont need to replace their SIM card, and they retain their home number. Travelers - Make calls and use data during travel worldwide at great local rates with direct connection to local operators - No need to change your SIM-card or phone number - Next generation messenger packed with amazing communication features User’s Interface part A brief demonstration how subscribers can be connected with local rates and LTE quality around the world. Operators and service providers - Any operator can become global without complex network integrations - Direct access to international telecom market with millions of new customers - Increase in revenue through distribution of value-added services Blockchain Telecom part Live demonstration of mobile carriers' interconnection via Blockchain. New Offers and Requests are created and broadcasted in real-time mode, and a new mobile profile was downloaded onto SIM-card of a subscriber. Bubbletone project consists of two main parts: Blockchain and Mobile App Bubbletone Blockchain Bubbletone replaces old-fashioned and costly roaming technology by implementing smart contracts into mobile operators' interactions. 1 Visited operator 1 Visited operator Any mobile operator can publish its own tariff plans as smart contracts ("Offers"). These Offers are visible to all operators and their subscribers Blockchain Subscriber 2 Request for mobile services abroad Home operator 3 Smart-contract ("Request") with Digital Identity hash and Financial Transaction Blockchain 4 It's enough to execute the smart-contract to receive money and identify a visitor 5 Servicing the subscriber directly by downloading its own mobile profile onto a SIM-card "over-the-air” Any mobile carrier can publish prepaid plans as smart contracts on Bubbletone Blockchain. These offers are visible to all other operators and their subscribers. When subscriber selects offer, a new smart contract is created with the subscribers digital identity and payment transaction directly to foreign operator. Sim card registered in the local mobile network Subscriber is authorized Payment is processed Service is provided Billing is transparent Tariffs are local Zero costs for operator Quality LTE / LTE+ Quick launch for operator Bubbletone GitHub Bubbletone Yellow pager Blockchain in Telecom Wiki Why big operators will join Bubbletone? Read on Medium Bubbletone App Direct connection to a local operator provides low rates and high LTE quality, with easy management using Bubbletone mobile app BETA version is already availabe in: Google PlayApp Store Marketplace connecting subscribers and local network operators globally Keeping domestic phone number during foreign trips Conference video and audio calls SMS in future - send a date and text for your SMS Burning messages Buy, keep and use domestic phone numbers in different countries 100+ other communication features Who we are: 20 years of experience in Telecom Industry Allo Incognito - our own medium-sized mobile operator in Russia since 2002 Allo Incognito Website 240k+ Premium Subscribers 42m USD Annual revenue 10k POS Bubbletone is trending
UMT Tokens 22% Network Development Fund 220 000 000 UMT 50% Crowdsale 500 000 000 UMT 20% Founders 200 000 000 UMT 7.8% Team & Community Development Fund 78 000 000 UMT 0.2% Bounty fund 2 000 000 UMT Name: UMT Type: ERC-20 Function: Used in smart contracts to perform transactions. Can be used to top up user balance to pay for telecom services Total Supply: 1 000 000 000 tokens For sale: 50% All unsold tokens will be burnt and additional release of tokens will not be possible! Checked by clearify Bubbletone ICO 01.02 10.02 Stage 1 10.02 01.03 Stage 2 02.03 10.03 Stage 3 20.04 15.06 ICO Stage ICO ETH/UMT 1 ETH = 4000 UMT Vesting No vesting Minimum 0.1 ETH ICO starts: 20.04.18, 10AM (London time) Token price: 1 ETH = 4000 UMT Hard cap: 15 000 000 USD Accepted currencies: ETH, BTC Join White List to reserve your UMT Tokens JOIN WHITE LIST Our Team Key Team
Yury Morozov CEO and Founder Co-founder of 4 active telecom companies
Oleg Pravdin CTO Telecom visionary, founder of 3 start-ups in the USA, China and Russia.
Irina Chertok Co-founder and Major Chief Board Director
Sergei Ivanov CEO of "Allo Incognito" (mobile virtual network operator)
Sergey Malcev Lead Blockchain Software Engineer
Sergey Baloyan CMO and Head of IR
Fedor Rozhnov CBDO Strategic Developer for Telco, Realized 2 MVNO-projects for Russian mobile market
Kirill Maskaev CCO and Head of PR
Maria Voronova Project Manager
Stepan Gershuni Blockchain expert, co-founder @Block Notary
Sergey Sevantsyan Blockchain expert, public speaker Developers and IT engineers team
Michael Nazarenko Lead security and fault tolerance developer
Sergey Prilutskiy Security expert, Blockchain architecture development
Sergey Lepenkov Development of payment services and high-load applications in the telecommunication field
Oleg Vintovkin Development of IT project Yandex Telephony; development BSS & OSS for mobile carriers
Yury Vasilchikov Blockchain consultant, smart contracts developer
Alexander Artemiev Bubbletone messenger architecture development, integration with mobile carriers
Jackov Mayurov Bubbletone messenger project manager
Ajmat Iqbal Bubbletone messenger software development leader
Mir Monsoor Hossain Senior software developer
Momi Monjil Ara Senior software developer
Khandaker Raihan Hossain Senior software developer
Md. Shafiqul Islam Front-end software developer
Md Maniruzzaman Back-end software developer
Alexey Makeev Smart contracts software engineer
Varun Reddy Community Relations
Mariana Bugaeva Head of design group
Advisors
Keith Teare Successful serial technology entrepreneur; Executive Chair at Accelerated Digital Ventures; TechCrunch founding shareholder and EasyNet, Europe’s first consumer Internet Service Provider
Dr. Norman Lewis Telecom expert Norman was running PWC’s innovation programme, He also worked in Orange UK as a Director of Technology Research, Founding Director of Future-Diagnosis, Executive board member of the MIT Communications Futures Programme.
Anders Larsson Anders worked in Ericsson Group for two decades to create the emerging technologies of 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and IOT in 10 different countries Held various CTO roles and the role of Vice President for Mobile Broadband in Southeast Asia & Oceania AllcoinWiki Co-founder Top-5 Blockchain Advisor in the world
Samson Lee Founder & CEO of CoinStreet; Executive Chairman of China (Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macau) Greater Bay Area TechFin Association; Co-founder of Hong Kong Blockchain Centre; Co-Founder of Ethereum south China and south Asia communities; Chief Crypto-economic Advisor of Gibraltar Blockchain Exchange; Advisor of Universa.io; Asia President of Next.TV Inc. and Chairman of STM Digital Group.
Joakim Holmer Joakim is a telecom expert, who had experience in AT&T and Ericsson Group. 15 years in various technical leadership positions around the world. Joakim has also worked with Software System Sales. With hunger to develop that included everything from Mobile App start-ups to RedHat, SAP and Cisco. AllcoinWiki co-founder
John Mun Co-Founder of Linker Coin; John obtained his MFE at UC Berkeley, then became a Market Maker, HFT trader and General Manager at one of South Korea's leading investment institutions Woori Investments and Securities. John’s finance and engineering background supported him strongly in the blockchain industry and now is also an expert in Smart Contract development.
Gabriel Zanko Fintech entrepreneur-Advisor. Founder of MobileyourLife and involved in the AI-Fintech space providing solutions in the B2B space. ICO advisory in Fundraising Capital and International Business Development.
Professor Jin Song Dong Director of the Institute for Integrated Intelligent System, Griffith University, Australia
Gilbert A. Darrell Gilbert is founder of Horizon Communications, the innovative provider of decentralized wireless infrastructure. He has 18 years of experience in IT and Telecoms and led multiple projects for Fortune 500 companies, such as Microsoft, Energizer and Siemens.
Vladimir Sirotinskiy CEO of Lingualeo, the market leader in online English language learning. Serial entrepreneur and business consultant
Oleg Khokhlov Adviser & Legal Counsel of ICO
Oleg Khokhlov is Partner with international law firm Goltsblat BLP, the Russian practice of Berwin Leighton Paisner (BLP), headquartered in London.
Oleg was selected by peers for inclusion in The Best Lawyers in Russia 2013-2018 Editions in the field of Banking & Finance Law. He has been also highly recommended for Banking & Finance by IFLR1000 and Legal 500.
Oleg has advised leading ICOs and venture fiat/cryptofunds.
Maria Agranovskaya Blockchain and ICO Legal Expert. Managing Partner of GRAD Attorney Bar (30+ lawyers). Attorney at Law with 20+ years of experience. Working with cryptocurrency since 2010: ICO, trading, funds setup, etc. Over eight years running a multifamily office. Cross-border transactions, investments, asset management, deal and corporate structuring in various jurisdictions. M&A, international taxation Tech and Telecom leaders about Bubbletone Blockchain Roadmap Q1’2018 Initial version of smart contracts is ready.
The first “Offer” and “Request” are on the Blockchain platform. Demonstration of the platform at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona (February’18). Integration with major eSIM platforms to download mobile profiles onto SIM cards
Q2’2018 Web-API for integration of mobile operators and service providers.
Integration of Digital Identity into Bubbletone app. Commercial launch, with “Offers” from 10+ mobile operators are on Blockchain, low rates in 80+ countries.
Q3’2018 Global Mobile Profile approval by International Telecommunication Union.
Update Mini Nodes to participate in processing smart contracts. BubbleTone Blockchain – White Paper Page 25 of 31 New features in the Bubbletone app: Voting platform based on Blockchain, 4K videoconferences, transfer of fiat money and crypto currencies
Q4’2018 Expanding list of mobile operators and service providers connected to Bubbletone Blockchain Ecosystem.
The first 1 million transactions are processed
Q1-Q4’2019 Signing agreements with mobile operators worldwide to activate the Global Mobile Profile.
First prototype of a global SIM-chip to be embedded into mobile devices. Expanding list of mobile operators and service providers connected to the Bubbletone Blockchain Ecosystem. 10 million transactions are processed
Partners
Bubbletone Community around the world Bubbletone Worldwide Tour Past Events May 14-16 TMForum, Nice, France May 14-16 Coindesk Consensus 2018, New York, USA May 2-3 Future Blockchain Summit, Dubai May 1-3 IOTX 2018, Dubai April 26-27 World Blockchain Summit, Moscow, Russia April 23-26 MVNO World Congress, Madrid, Spain April 18-19 Blockchain Expo, London, UK April 17-18 Blockchain Conference, Moscow, Russia April 16-17 World Blockchain Forum, Dubai April 8 Blockchain Tomorrow 21, Seoul, Korea April 4 Blockchain Conference, Berlin, Germany March 28 Blockchain Conference, Tel Aviv, Israel March 22 Tallinn Blockchain Conference, Tallinn, Estonia March 21-22 Cryprocurrency World Expo, Berlin, Germany 26 February - 01 March Mobile World Congress in Barcelona March 10 Crypto Investor Show, London, UK March 7-8 Blockchain Summit Zurich 2018, Zurich, Switzerland March 3-6 D10E Fintech Conference, Seoul, Korea March 2 Bubbletone Meet-Up, Singapore March 1 Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference, Istanbul, Turkey February 23 7th Korea Blockchain Symposium, Seoul February 27-28 Singapore Blockchain Summit 2018, Singapore 25-26 January Cryptoeconomy ICO London 22-24 January London Blockchain Week 2018 14 December Big ICO Roadshow, Moscow, Russia 8 December Crypto Space, Moscow, Russia 29-30 November Blockchain Expo in Santa Clara, California (booth 419) 29-30 November Block Show Asia in Singapore 14-15 November Telecom Conference in London 24-25 October World Blockchain Summit in Dubai 8-12 October GITEX Technology Week in Dubai, Stand E3-6 3-5 October Blockchain Solution Forum in Barcelona, Stand №100 26-27 September Telecom Conference in Singapore 25-26 September World Blockchain Forum in London FAQ How can I buy your tokens? Which cryptocurrencies are accepted? Which wallet should I use to receive tokens? What is the goal of your project? Is your product already working? Do you have a prototype or a beta version? Why do you have a blockchain in your project? How is your system going to expand? What are advantages for Node owners? What are the advantages of BubbleTone messenger? How do I operate all these other Sims on my phone? JOIN US
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Défendez le droit de grève ! Il faut riposter aux attaques du gouvernement ! (2007)

https://archive.is/bvrdj
Le Bolchévik nº 181 Septembre 2007
La classe ouvrière a besoin d'un parti révolutionnaire !
Avec les rivalités interimpérialistes qui s’intensifient dans ce monde postsoviétique, l’impérialisme français a pris du retard par rapport à ses rivaux, n’ayant pas réussi essentiellement à mener le même niveau d’offensive contre la classe ouvrière que, par exemple, les gouvernements allemands. Récemment le gouvernement allemand a réussi, entre autres, à interdire une grève du syndicat des cheminots GDL qui devait commencer le 9 août. Sarkozy a promis aux patrons ici qu’il est l’homme qui est capable de renverser la vapeur et d’intensifier le taux de profit de l’impérialisme français en détruisant ce qui reste de l’Etat-providence, en particulier les acquis dans la santé, l’éducation et les retraites. Et il s’y est mis tout de suite. Il a lancé une série d’attaques ciblées contre les principaux secteurs de la société que la bourgeoisie considère comme potentiellement dangereux pour la poursuite de ses buts.
C’est pourquoi il s’est attaqué au droit de grève même des cheminots, un des secteurs les plus organisés et les plus combatifs de la classe ouvrière française, auxquels il veut imposer le « service minimum ». A partir de là, le gouvernement a l’intention de s’en prendre à leurs retraites, pour avoir une ouverture lui permettant de remettre en question l’âge de la retraite pour tous les travailleurs. Les enseignants, qui ont été le fer de lance de la lutte de 2003 contre Fillon sur les retraites, puis qui ont joué un rôle central dans les mobilisations anti-CPE, sont aussi dans le collimateur. Un grand nombre de postes doit être supprimé et Fillon parle de leur imposer les mêmes restrictions au droit de grève qu’aux cheminots. Les étudiants, qui servent souvent d’étincelle à des luttes sociales plus étendues, sont visés avec la loi sur « l’autonomie des universités », premier pas vers la privatisation des études supérieures qui va priver les enfants de la classe ouvrière d’éducation supérieure. Au même moment, Dati impose une « loi contre la récidive » qui intensifie les attaques contre les jeunes des banlieues, et poursuit avec encore plus d’acharnement la répression quotidienne des sans-papiers, des Roms et des ouvriers immigrés. C’est la politique classique de diviser pour régner contre la classe ouvrière.
Ces attaques s’accompagnent d’une offensive menée contre la gauche et, essentiellement, contre la liberté d’expression. Lutte ouvrière (LO) et la Ligue communiste révolutionnaire (LCR) sont ainsi traînées devant les tribunaux pour diffamation. LO a été condamné en juin par le tribunal correctionnel de Paris pour avoir rapporté la mort d’un flic aux Antilles l’an dernier. Quant à Besancenot, il est poursuivi par SMP Technologies, le distributeur officiel de pistolets taser en France, et doit passer en jugement en septembre parce qu’il a objecté à ce que les flics soient équipés de cette arme pendant la campagne présidentielle (voir la lettre du CDDS en page 13). De plus le groupe Gauche révolutionnaire, section française du Comité pour une Internationale ouvrière, a rapporté dans le numéro de juillet-août de son journal l’Egalité que deux de ses militants ont été arrêtés pour « vente sans autorisation de matériel militant contre le chef de l’Etat ». Nous protestons contre toutes ces tentatives de faire taire, démoraliser et écraser le mouvement ouvrier en prévision des batailles à venir.
Les ouvriers ont besoin d’une révolution socialiste !
Pour augmenter ses profits et sa position dans le monde, la bourgeoisie a besoin de faire baisser les salaires et d’intensifier l’exploitation de la classe ouvrière. Depuis plus d’un siècle, après deux guerres impérialistes mondiales, le massacre de millions de personnes dans les guerres coloniales et néo-coloniales, et malgré le quotidien de l’esclavage salarié, du chômage et de l’oppression raciste, les soi-disant socialistes prêchent qu’il y a une voie pacifique au « socialisme » et qu’on peut réformer le capitalisme pour qu’il serve les intérêts de toutes les classes. Ils colportent un mensonge qui en fin de compte ne sert qu’à maintenir le joug de la domination de la bourgeoisie. Il y a eu des réformes et il y en aura encore, grâce à d’intenses batailles de classe et d’importants sacrifices de la part de la classe ouvrière. Mais, sous le capitalisme, les patrons chercheront toujours à les reprendre, comme nous le constatons aujourd’hui. L’exploitation de la classe ouvrière et l’oppression raciste sont la base même du système capitaliste de profit. On ne peut pas les combattre et gagner en faisant appel à ces mêmes maîtres capitalistes, que ce soient des gouvernements capitalistes de droite ou de « gauche » pour essayer de réformer le capitalisme et le rendre plus favorable aux ouvriers, pour qu’il jette quelques miettes en direction des ouvriers.
Le système de profit est basé sur l’exploitation de la force de travail des ouvriers par la bourgeoisie, et son Etat – les flics, les prisons et les tribunaux – est dirigé contre les ouvriers pour assurer que son exploitation est maintenue et renforcée. Pour en finir une fois pour toutes avec l’oppression capitaliste il faudra une révolution ouvrière, dirigée par un parti ouvrier multiracial, qui arrache les moyens de production des mains de la bourgeoisie. Et c’est seulement à ce moment-là, avec une centralisation et une planification internationales de l’économie basée sur les besoins de la société et non sur les profits, que les masses pourront finalement profiter du fruit de leur propre travail.
Mais aujourd’hui les soi-disant « socialistes » insistent qu’il n’y a pas d’alternative au capitalisme. Dans son discours principal à l’université d’été, Hollande a été très clair : « C’est fini le grand soir ! » ajoutant : « On va pas raconter des histoires, on ne va pas raconter qu’à l’horizon des cinq ou des dix ans [...] on va en terminer avec le capitalisme » (Reuters, 31 août).
Mais les organisations qui se prétendent « révolutionnaires » comme la LCR et LO se comportent comme si pour elles aussi, le grand soir, c’était fini. Pour ces réformistes, les revendications maximum ne vont pas au-delà de la préservation ou de l’amélioration graduelle des maigres avantages sociaux de l’Etat-providence concédés par le capitalisme. Ce que demandaient les programmes électoraux, tant celui d’Arlette Laguiller que celui d’Olivier Besancenot, dans la récente campagne, c’était essentiellement le retour à la situation dans laquelle ce pays était il y a 30 ans. Comme nous l’avons dit à l’époque : « on ne peut revenir comme ça 30 ans en arrière ; à l’époque l’Union soviétique existait, et beaucoup de travailleurs avancés voyaient en elle la preuve qu’il est possible d’instaurer une société où la classe capitaliste est expropriée. C’est la peur de l’Union soviétique, qui avait des chars à 500 kilomètres de Strasbourg et un fort parti communiste dans les banlieues et les usines de France, qui explique en partie les concessions que la bourgeoisie accordait face aux luttes des travailleurs. Elle était prête à supporter un taux de profit plus bas de peur de tout perdre. C’était cela la base de l’“Etat-providence”. » (le Bolchévik n° 179, mars). Malgré la domination stalinienne et malgré l’austérité et la pauvreté relative des économies des pays de l’Est, il n’y avait pas de chômage, pas de terreur raciste massive, comme à l’Ouest, parce que les capitalistes avaient été expropriés et l’économie collectivisée. Ces acquis n’avaient jamais été obtenus pour la classe ouvrière dans les pays capitalistes les plus riches.
La restauration du capitalisme en Europe de l’Est et dans l’ex-URSS en 1991-1992 était une défaite historique pour le prolétariat qui a créé le contexte non seulement pour les attaques des patrons en France aujourd’hui mais aussi dans le monde entier. Les exploiteurs ont été enhardis et s’attaquent de plus belle au niveau de vie des travailleurs et à leurs organisations. Les puissances impérialistes se battent avec acharnement pour défendre leur sphère d’influence existante et essayer de mettre la main sur de nouveaux marchés et une nouvelle main-d’œuvre à bon marché à exploiter. La tournée expresse de Sarkozy en Afrique cet été, sa performance en Libye, et la visite « surprise » de Kouchner à ses vieux copains en Irak, ainsi que les dernières menaces de l’impérialisme français qui veut imposer avec les Etats-Unis, des sanctions meurtrières contre l’Iran, et même bombarder ce pays si ses dirigeants ne s’inclinent pas devant les diktats de l’Ouest, tout cela c’est pour développer le pillage de l’impérialisme français. La France, qui est beaucoup plus faible que les Etats-Unis et même que l’Allemagne et le Japon, met ses ambitions de politique étrangère au niveau de son statut de puissance impérialiste de troisième catégorie. Lorsque l’Union soviétique existait encore, l’impérialisme français pouvait s’appuyer sur son ancien empire colonial pour prendre une posture d’indépendance. L’impérialisme américain le tolérait parce qu’il préférait que certains pays fassent des discours et concluent des marchés avec de Gaulle ou Mitterrand plutôt que de se retrouver des satellites de Moscou. Mais aujourd’hui Sarkozy se rapproche de Bush tout en essayant d’utiliser l’Union européenne (UE) pour ses propres intérêts.
Nous sommes par principe opposés à l’Union européenne. C’est un consortium impérialiste réactionnaire qui repose sur les principales puissances impérialistes européennes qui cherchent à améliorer leur compétitivité par rapport à leurs rivaux américains et japonais en intensifiant l’exploitation de « leur » classe ouvrière, des immigrés et des masses de leurs anciennes colonies. Notre alternative ce sont des Etats-Unis socialistes d’Europe et pour cela il faut des révolutions ouvrières pour reconstruire l’Europe sur une base socialiste. Nous disons : Troupes françaises, troupes de l’UE et de l’ONU, hors d’Afrique, hors d’Afghanistan et des Balkans ! La nouvelle force d’intervention européenne en train d’être mise en place au Tchad par Sarkozy et le britannique Gordon Brown (1 200 soldats y sont déjà stationnés) au nom de l’aide « humanitaire » au Darfour va aller engraisser Total, Areva, British Petroleum et toutes les autres sangsues dans cet endroit aux nombreuses ressources naturelles.
Non à la collaboration de classes ! Rompez avec la politique de front populaire !
La gauche, avec sa politique de trahison, a bien pavé la voie aux attaques et à la montée actuelle de la réaction, notamment grâce à la collaboration de classes avec sa propre bourgeoisie et sa croisade antisoviétique contre l’ex-URSS, croisade dont Mitterrand était le fer de lance en Europe. C’était un des principaux thèmes qui ont permis à l’Union de la gauche de venir au pouvoir en 1981, avec la participation de ministres du PCF. En gage à la bourgeoisie, en échange de postes gouvernementaux, le PCF renonça à soutenir l’intervention de l’Armée rouge en Afghanistan et s’est lancé dans une attaque raciste contre un foyer d’immigrés à Vitry à la veille des élections.
Le dernier gouvernement de front populaire, la « Gauche plurielle » de Jospin, dans laquelle le PS et le PC gouvernaient avec les partis bourgeois de Taubira, Chevènement et des Verts, est aussi arrivé au gouvernement après les importantes grèves de décembre 1995 mais plus généralement dans le contexte de la contre-révolution capitaliste en Union soviétique et des rivalités impérialistes accrues qui ont conduit à une nouvelle attaque contre les acquis gagnés précédemment. Le gouvernement Jospin-Buffet a privatisé plus que n’importe quel autre gouvernement de droite avant lui. Il a notamment privatisé Air France, expulsé des milliers de sans-papiers et mené des campagnes racistes contre les jeunes des banlieues, pavant la voie à Le Pen et à son succès au premier tour des élections présidentielles de 2002 et au retour de la droite.
L’histoire des luttes ouvrières en France et de comment elles ont été sabotées tout au long du siècle dernier, c’est l’histoire de la trahison des dirigeants ouvriers qui pratiquent la collaboration de classes. Et c’est cette même politique de front populaire qui a été poursuivie sur le terrain par les réformistes dans la période qui a précédé les dernières élections. Six mois avant le CPE, on lançait des oeufs pourris sur les dirigeants du Parti socialiste. Mais les luttes contre le CPE leur ont permis de paraître combatifs et de redorer leur blason, avec l’aide de la LCR et de LO qui se sont joints au secrétaire du PS François Hollande, à Marie-George Buffet, au chevènementiste Georges Sarre et à d’autres dans les comités « Riposte », ravalant toutes leurs critiques habituelles du « néolibéralisme » du PS ou les reproches qu’ils font aux bureaucrates syndicaux, au nom de « l’unité dans la lutte ». Lors des récentes élections la LCR, et probablement LO, auraient certes préféré avoir Fabius comme candidat plutôt que Royal qui chantait la Marseillaise drapée en tricolore, mais cela ne les a pas empêchés, explicitement pour LO et implicitement pour la LCR, d’appeler à voter pour ce soi-disant « moindre mal », leur fournissant ainsi une couverture de gauche. Dans ces élections nous avons dit qu’il n’y avait « pas de choix » pour la classe ouvrière et nous n’avons appelé à voter pour l’« ordre juste » raciste et anti-ouvrier de Royal ni au premier, ni au second tour. Nous avons aussi mis les ouvriers en garde qu’à l’avenir leurs luttes seraient à nouveau détournées sur le terrain du réformisme parlementaire par la gauche collaborationniste de classes qui invoquerait les élections municipales.
Pour une direction de lutte de classe dans les syndicats !
Etant donné les intérêts irréconciliables entre la classe ouvrière et la bourgeoisie, le prolétariat doit se battre indépendamment des capitalistes pour gagner quoi que ce soit. Dans les luttes qui vont inévitablement se produire, il faudra une bataille politique contre les bureaucrates syndicaux qui cherchent constamment à freiner les luttes des ouvriers et à imposer des « partenariats » pourris avec les patrons parce que, fondamentalement, ils acceptent le cadre du système capitaliste. Autrement dit ils travaillent pour que le système capitaliste de leur pays soit plus « compétitif » par rapport à ses rivaux étrangers.
La loi sur le « service minimum » est une attaque contre les syndicats eux-mêmes, qui sont des organisations de défense économique des ouvriers. Le « service minimum », c’est-à-dire garantir que les trains vont rouler un jour de grève, sape le but de la grève qui est d’arrêter le travail, source de profits pour les patrons. Le préavis individuel de 48 heures et le vote à bulletins secrets au bout d’une semaine de grève sont des mesures visant ouvertement à briser les grèves et constituent des moyens classiques que la bourgeoisie utilise pour essayer de briser la solidarité ouvrière. Elles rendent les ouvriers plus vulnérables à la pression des patrons. Mais face à cette attaque de très grande envergure, la seule action proposée par les bureaucrates syndicaux jusqu’à présent et au moment où elle va entrer en vigueur, a été des manifestations locales sans un seul appel à la grève. Par ailleurs la CGT a fait appel au Conseil constitutionnel pour faire rejeter la loi. Comme le rejet de l’appel de la CGT par le Conseil constitutionnel l’a montré, les institutions de l’Etat capitaliste, que ce soit le Conseil constitutionnel ou les tribunaux, ne sont pas neutres, ce sont des instruments de défense de la domination et des profits de la bourgeoisie.
Le « champ de bataille » avec la bourgeoisie qu’ont choisi les chefs syndicaux, c’est celui du « dialogue social » et une série de négociations a commencé début septembre. Alors que les capitalistes optent pour l’intensification de la répression plutôt que de faire quelques concessions pour acheter la « paix sociale », la principale préoccupation des bureaucrates est de s’assurer qu’ils continuent à être consultés un minimum sur comment mieux berner les ouvriers. C’est pour cela que Chérèque et Mailly, les dirigeants de la CFDT et de FO, ont une fois de plus participé à l’université du MEDEF cette année. Mais la direction de la CGT, dont la base est plus combative, n’en est pas moins enfoncée jusqu’au cou dans la collaboration avec les patrons pour mettre en œuvre les attaques anti-ouvrières que la bourgeoisie estime nécessaires pour rendre le capitalisme français plus compétitif. Il ne faut pas que la trahison des travailleurs d’EDF se répète à la SNCF. A EDF la bureaucratie de la CGT a secrètement négocié avec Sarkozy pour « maintenir » les retraites pour la génération actuelle de travailleurs d’EDF-GDF mais pas pour les nouveaux embauchés, en échange de la privatisation.
Contre le programme de collaboration et de capitulation de la bureaucratie, les cheminots et les autres secteurs de la classe ouvrière ont besoin d’une direction révolutionnaire dans les syndicats. Une telle direction défendrait l’indépendance des syndicats par rapport à l’Etat bourgeois ; financièrement elle dépendrait seulement des cotisations de ses membres au lieu de se faire acheter par les subventions de l’Etat et des patrons. Elle rechercherait le maximum d’unité dans la lutte au lieu de la division actuelle des syndicats par affiliation politique ou catégorie professionnelle, qui est en fait un cadeau aux patrons. Elle chercherait à syndiquer les non-syndiqués, en particulier les jeunes ouvriers des banlieues qui sont embauchés sous contrat temporaire et incertain, ainsi que les ouvrières qui ne peuvent souvent travailler qu’à temps partiel et dans des conditions incertaines.
La longue et dure grève de six semaines à Citroën au printemps dernier, la plus importante dans l’automobile depuis plus de dix ans, a souligné l’importance qu’il y a à lier la colère et la révolte des banlieues contre l’oppression raciste à la puissance sociale de la classe ouvrière. Nous avons toujours fait remarquer que les jeunes des banlieues ne sont pas seulement les victimes du racisme mais qu’ils sont aussi intégrés au prolétariat industriel, même si celui-ci est en baisse. Ils font partie de la seule force sociale qui puisse renverser ce système capitaliste raciste et décadent. Il sera aussi très important dans la confrontation majeure qui se prépare entre le gouvernement et la classe ouvrière que le secteur privé, en grande partie non syndiqué et qui comporte un grand nombre d’ouvriers d’origine immigrée ou appartenant à des minorités, soit aussi mobilisé aux côtés du secteur public. Mais pour que cela se produise, les syndicats doivent se battre contre le poison raciste instillé par les patrons dont le but est de diviser la classe ouvrière. Ils doivent donc défendre les ouvriers d’origine immigrée contre la discrimination sur le lieu de travail. Plus de 10 000 travailleurs étrangers ont subi des contrôles d’identité lors du premier semestre de cette année, c’est-à-dire deux fois plus que l’année dernière tout entière. Nous exigeons les pleins droits de citoyenneté pour tous les immigrés et leur famille. Les marins syndiqués de la SNCM ont empêché l’expulsion de sans-papiers vers l’Algérie. Des syndicalistes à l’aéroport de Roissy ont défendu les bagagistes contre la chasse aux sorcières raciste il y a un an. Ces actions montrent la voie. S’il y a une grève des cheminots, le gouvernement cherchera inévitablement à utiliser Vigipirate et à invoquer la « lutte contre le terrorisme » en prétendant que la grève met le pays en danger d’être attaqué par de soi-disant terroristes. Cette hystérie antiterroriste, soutenue tant par la droite que par la gauche, n’est qu’un prétexte pour s’attaquer aux minorités et à ceux qui s’opposent à la politique du gouvernement ; en dehors du pays, c’est un prétexte pour justifier des interventions militaires impérialistes. Par exemple c’est le gouvernement Jospin-Buffet qui a renforcé Vigipirate après l’attaque du 11-Septembre contre le World Trade Center et qui a exploité cette attaque criminelle pour faire passer la loi sur la sécurité quotidienne dont s’est inspiré Sarkozy pour ses propres lois racistes. On ne pourra unifier la classe ouvrière qu’en combattant le racisme et le chauvinisme qui la divisent et qui sont encouragés par les patrons et leurs agents dans le mouvement ouvrier.
Nous sommes le parti de la Révolution russe !
La Ligue communiste internationale (quatrième-internationaliste) dont la Ligue trotskyste de France (LTF) est la section française a combattu avec acharnement la contre-révolution capitaliste dans l’ex-Union soviétique. Nous nous sommes battus pour la défense de l’Union soviétique et des Etats ouvriers déformés, et pour des révolutions politiques prolétariennes afin de chasser les usurpateurs staliniens et leur politique de « coexistence pacifique » avec l’impérialisme. En 1979, contre les moudjahidin réactionnaires islamistes d’Afghanistan soutenus par la CIA et le gouvernement français, nous disions : « Salut à l’Armée rouge en Afghanistan ! » et nous appelions à étendre les acquis de la Révolution russe aux peuples afghans ; en 1981 nous avons dit « Halte à la contre-révolution de Solidarność ! » et en 1989 nous avons mobilisé toutes nos forces pour lutter contre la réunification capitaliste de l’Allemagne et pour sa réunification révolutionnaire, en balayant la bureaucratie stalinienne en train d’abdiquer et en établissant une véritable démocratie ouvrière basée sur les conseils ouvriers. Après la victoire du Quatrième Reich et la défaite de notre classe en Allemagne, nous avons poursuivi la lutte en Union soviétique où nos camarades ont distribué plus de 100 000 exemplaires de notre article d’août 1991 « Ouvriers soviétiques : écrasez la contre-révolution de Bush-Eltsine ! » Il n’y a que le programme trotskyste de révolution politique qui pouvait empêcher le désastre d’une contre-révolution capitaliste en URSS et en Europe de l’Est. Aujourd’hui nous continuons la lutte pour la défense militaire inconditionnelle des Etats ouvriers déformés qui restent : la Chine, la Corée du Nord, le Vietnam et Cuba, contre l’impérialisme et la contre-révolution. Nous nous opposons aux campagnes protectionnistes des patrons et des bureaucrates syndicaux contre la Chine et à leur hystérie grandissante contre les Jeux olympiques de Pékin de l’an prochain. Car, derrière cette offensive, il y a les visées des impérialistes qui veulent restaurer le capitalisme en Chine, le plus grand marché potentiel, et ouvrir le pays à une exploitation effrénée de la main-d’œuvre la plus abondante.
La restauration capitaliste en URSS et en Europe de l’Est a rejeté en arrière la conscience de classe du prolétariat. L’immense majorité des ouvriers ne voient plus leurs luttes comme un combat pour de nouvelles révolutions socialistes. La tâche d’un parti révolutionnaire, à l’approche du 90e anniversaire de la Révolution russe d’octobre 1917 dirigée par le parti bolchévique de Lénine et Trotsky, la première et jusqu’à maintenant la seule révolution ouvrière victorieuse de l’histoire, c’est d’expliquer qu’il n’existe pas de raccourci pour remédier aux déprédations et à la décadence capitalistes et qu’il faut de nouvelles révolutions d’Octobre.
Les réformistes se plaignent aujourd’hui des attaques contre l’Etat-providence, mais lorsqu’ils ont soutenu les forces contre-révolutionnaires en Europe de l’Est et en Union soviétique au nom du « pluralisme politique » et de la « liberté totale d’expression », qui étaient selon eux « la seule garantie de démocratie » (numéro spécial URSS, Inprecor, août 1991), ils ont eux-mêmes modestement contribué aux attaques actuelles contre les acquis des ouvriers de l’Ouest. La LCR a carrément soutenu Eltsine, lorsqu’il a fait son contre-coup « contre la dictature stalinienne » avec le soutien des impérialistes en août 1991. Krivine, dirigeant de la LCR à l’époque, écrivit que son organisation était « pleinement solidaire de celles et de ceux qui, sur les barricades, ont fait face à la menace des chars » (tract de la LCR distribué à partir du 3 septembre 1991). La LCR et Lutte ouvrière ont aussi soutenu la contre-révolution de Solidarność en Pologne, tant chérie par le pape et Ronald Reagan. LO a soutenu inconditionnellement et avec enthousiasme la réunification capitaliste de l’Allemagne lorsque le mur de Berlin est tombé en novembre 1989.
Réformisme new look – toujours le même obstacle
Aujourd’hui, dans le contexte de l’intensification des rivalités interimpérialistes, de la désindustrialisation croissante et des privatisations, le courant principal de la social-démocratie va de plus en plus à droite. L’exode d’un certain nombre des « éléphants » du Parti socialiste ainsi que le rejet par Royal, après la campagne électorale, de ses propres déclarations sur la défense des 35 heures et du salaire minimum à 1 500 euros, ne fait que souligner combien les divergences sont minces entre leur programme pour gouverner l’impérialisme français, et celui de Sarkozy et Cie.
Etant donné ce mouvement à droite du paysage politique français, la LCR voit, sur le flanc gauche, une ouverture pour elle. Elle appelle à construire un nouveau parti « anticapitaliste, féministe, écologiste, internationaliste et socialiste », « mi-guevariste et mi-libertaire » comme l’a déclaré Besancenot le 26 août, qui va « rendre possible la convergence de toutes et de tous ». Face à la réaction et à la décadence capitaliste, la dernière chose dont a besoin la classe ouvrière aujourd’hui c’est du réformisme dans un emballage nouveau de la LCR. Ce réformisme est tout autant un obstacle à la hausse du niveau de conscience de la classe ouvrière qui a besoin de se préparer à prendre le pouvoir et à renverser le capitalisme.
Pour créer sa nouvelle organisation, la LCR veut se débarrasser des mots « communiste » et « révolutionnaire » dans son nom (ce n’était de toute façon que des mots vides de sens pour elle), et ne veut plus non plus prétendre agir dans la tradition du trotskysme et de la Quatrième Internationale. C’est tout à fait en accord avec son opportunisme. En 1998 déjà, sous l’impact de la publication du Livre noir du communisme, dans le climat de triomphalisme de la bourgeoisie, la LCR s’était publiquement demandée si les bolchéviks n’auraient pas dû renoncer à prendre le pouvoir pour la classe ouvrière en 1917 et s’ils auraient dû rejeter les règles de la « démocratie » bourgeoise (voir « “Le Livre noir du communisme” : mensonges capitalistes usés », Spartacist édition française n° 32, printemps 1998, et « Communisme contre stalinisme : une réponse au Livre noir du communisme » de Daniel Bensaïd). Plus tard, en 2003, la LCR a poursuivi dans la même voie en renonçant à la « dictature du prolétariat » c’est-à-dire à ce que les travailleurs soient au pouvoir. Le fait que la LCR rejette cette perspective aujourd’hui en faveur du statu quo montre qu’au fond elle s’accommode tout bonnement de la dictature de la bourgeoisie.
La LCR a beau invectiver le PS ces temps-ci, cela n’empêche que depuis le début de son existence elle n’a jamais dévié de son cours de politique de pression en restant bien au chaud dans le cadre du capitalisme, comme le montre le fait que, dans toutes les élections, elle appelle à voter pour le candidat du front populaire, la seule exception étant son soutien indirect à Chirac en 2002 pour « barrer la route à Le Pen ». Aujourd’hui le grand plan pour combattre les attaques de Sarkozy, c’est la même politique de collaboration de classes suicidaire qu’avant : Besancenot appelle à constituer des « comités de vigilance pour organiser la riposte et la résistance, qui associent toute la gauche – du PS à l’extrême gauche – les organisations syndicales, les collectifs ». Quand la LCR parle de « toute la gauche » elle ne se base pas sur des critères de classe. Elle inclut les Radicaux de gauche bourgeois, le MRC, les Verts petits-bourgeois, etc. Nous nous opposons à de tels blocs permanents de collaboration de classes qui sont nécessairement subordonnés au programme de leurs composantes bourgeoises.
Se saisissant des manœuvres de la LCR, LO dans son numéro de Lutte de Classe de cet été s’attaque férocement au projet de parti « 100 % anticapitaliste » et dit qu’il faut construire un « parti révolutionnaire qui recrute sur la base de la révolution sociale ». Mais dans l’action, il s’est avéré à chaque fois que la politique de LO était tout autant un obstacle à la révolution socialiste que la variante altermondialiste-anarchisante de la LCR. Même le refus de LO de voter pour Chirac en 2002 a récemment été présenté aux membres de LO comme simplement une manœuvre électorale et non comme un principe. Comme Laguiller l’expliquait à la veille du premier tour des élections :
« Le Pen n’avait donc aucune chance d’être élu mais, maintenant, Sarkozy a bien des chances de l’être. [...]
« Je voterai donc pour Ségolène Royal. Et j’appelle tous les électeurs à en faire autant. Mais si je fais ce choix c’est uniquement par solidarité avec tous ceux qui, dans les classes populaires, déclarent préférer “tout sauf Sarkozy”. »
– Editorial de Lutte Ouvrière, 22 avril
Un parti d’avant-garde révolutionnaire existe précisément pour apporter à la classe ouvrière la conscience de ses intérêts historiques afin qu’elle renverse le capitalisme. Les courants réformistes par contre se mettent à la traîne du niveau de conscience actuel de la classe ouvrière ou le ramènent même en arrière, acceptant comme le disait Trotsky dans les Leçons d’Octobre, « l’inébranlabilité de l’Etat bourgeois ». C’est exactement le sens du vote de Lutte ouvrière « sans réserves et sans illusions » pour Royal. Pour LO, voter pour le front populaire n’est pas une question de principe, c’est une tactique opportuniste qu’on utilise lorsque la droite est très impopulaire et qu’on a peur de s’isoler des masses, et en particulier de la périphérie du PCF que lorgne LO, si on refuse de soutenir « la gauche ».
L’attitude de LO vis-à-vis des flics est une des preuves les plus claires de son programme réformiste. C’est avec ses tribunaux et ses flics que le système capitaliste impose son exploitation des ouvriers et l’oppression des masses. Loin d’être là pour protéger les gens, le rôle des flics est de s’assurer que la résistance des ouvriers à l’exploitation capitaliste est réprimée, comme beaucoup d’ouvriers qui ont participé à une grève combative le savent très bien. Les flics, les matons et les gardiens ne font pas partie du mouvement ouvrier et n’ont pas leur place dans les syndicats. Peu après le déchaînement des flics à la gare du Nord, à peine une semaine après que quelqu’un a filmé des flics tabassant deux jeunes à Rouen, et au beau milieu d’une campagne du gouvernement pour présenter les flics racistes comme les victimes des jeunes des banlieues, voilà ce que LO avait à dire :
« Une police de proximité, que réclame entre autres le Parti Socialiste, résoudrait-elle ce problème ? Il faudrait déjà que ce ne soit pas qu'un saupoudrage de quelques policiers lâchés souvent sans formation dans des quartiers difficiles. Il faudrait aussi que les policiers aient une attitude tout autre que celle qu'ils ont lors de leurs actions “coup de poing”, où tout habitant est a priori un suspect. Une police qui serait en contact permanent avec la population, au courant des problèmes de sécurité qu'elle rencontre et soucieuse de les régler, pourrait au moins permettre aux habitants de vivre mieux en contenant la délinquance, à défaut de l'éradiquer. »
– Lutte Ouvrière, 13 avril
Pour certains militants de LO ces déclarations ne sont que des aberrations, tout comme par exemple la signature de LO au bas de l’appel de la Ligue des droits de l’homme, en compagnie du PS, du PC, etc. pour demander le rétablissement de l’ordre contre les jeunes assiégés pendant la révolte des banlieues de 2005 (que Hardy, le dirigeant de LO, a qualifiée « d’ânerie mineure »). Mais en fait ces déclarations correspondent au programme politique de LO de réforme de l’Etat capitaliste. Et peut-être qu’aujourd’hui certains membres de LO se demandent pourquoi Laguiller s’est tellement entichée de Fadela Amara, qui est maintenant secrétaire d’Etat. Pourquoi cela ? Parce que tout comme LO, elle était un des fers de lance de la campagne de Chirac contre le voile en 2004. En tant que marxistes, et donc athées et combattant pour la libération des femmes, nous considérons que le voile est un symbole et un instrument d’oppression de la femme. Mais nous nous opposons à ce que l’Etat ou le gouvernement interdise ou impose des restrictions au port du voile, car c’est raciste et discriminatoire contre les musulmans. Contrairement à ce que prétendent les petits-bourgeois, à savoir qu’interdire le voile a pour objectif d’intégrer les musulmans dans la société, ces interdictions ne font qu’exclure les jeunes musulmanes des écoles et renforcent leur isolement et leur oppression. Ce n’est pas par hasard que la première mission officielle de Fadela Amara dans le gouvernement de Sarkozy a été de tenir un stand de recrutement pour l’armée française à Saint-Denis près de Paris, où elle se serait exclamée : « Une armée où il y a de la couleur, ça c’est la bombe ! » A bas la collaboration de classes raciste !
Dans le Programme de transition de la Quatrième Internationale, Léon Trotsky a écrit, à la veille du massacre de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : « La situation politique mondiale dans son ensemble se caractérise avant tout par la crise historique de la direction du prolétariat. » Près de 70 ans plus tard, face à la réaction raciste et nationaliste pavant la voie à de futures guerres impérialistes, cette affirmation est plus vraie que jamais. La Ligue communiste internationale et sa section française s’efforcent de construire un parti ouvrier révolutionnaire multiethnique qui se fera le champion des droits de tous les opprimés. Sa tâche est d’apporter un programme révolutionnaire à la classe ouvrière, de surmonter l’arriération et les préjugés, de combattre le réformisme et tous les autres programmes petits-bourgeois qui subordonnent le prolétariat à la bourgeoisie, dans la lutte pour renverser la domination de la classe capitaliste. Rejoignez-nous !
http://www.icl-fi.org/francais/lebol/181/riposter.html
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