Sports Betting For Dummies - How to Bet on Sports

YOR Health

I’m surprised there isn’t much info but here’s my story. It was back in 2011, just about to graduate out of high school. A man approached us and he looked like a successful guy. He had a charcoal grey suit with an ear piece and was super enthusiastic. He had a Tumi bag that was black and red and I always wanted one like it. He talked to my gf and I and he left us a green card. Prior to this, I was in a 3 year relationship, just starting to work, and I wanted to figure out what I wanted to do. This was like a golden ticket. He said to not look up the company only because of something that I can’t remember. But later that day, I did so anyways. The scam posts, websites dedicated on complaints, the same stories of people saying it’s a giant scam-I got mad. I was mad that he got my hopes up. I should’ve left it at there and done nothing else. But of course, my dumbass. My immature dumbass decided it would be hilarious to go there, sit through the presentation, and do a “You’re all a scam” shout or something. I don’t remember. My ex said that it’s probably not a good idea but I told her I wanted the best for us. I wanted a future but these people are assholes for doing this. So at the end of the week, I dressed up to see their presentation.
It was a “ticketed event” and everyone there was in suits and being extremely happy and talking about how I was so lucky for coning (fyi this is a clever way to edify or make the event bigger than it actually is without technically lying). The presentation starts and it’s all the classics. The products, why they’re different (NDS patent...but not FDA approved si they’re supplements. Fine I’ll give them that), how nAtUrAL they are, how they make you feel, and the business model with the different packs (I kid you not one of those business packs was over $1200). I knew this was going to pop up but they kept emphasizing that it was the model of a workforce-the model of any structure (but failing to realize in actual companies those are salaried positions). They had free samples and I’m not gonna lie they tasted good (minus the Meal Replacements) and has combos of products together. Once it’s done, my “up line” turns to me and says, “So obviously all of this is new and exciting right?” (They knew how to take control of the conversation by picking questions that make it lean towards one way-almost questions that are meant for you to say “yes”) I’m still not set so I tell him I can’t afford it...but I couldn’t stop noticing how successful some of the people looked. He then let me meet the speaker. He was the one that got me in. So smooth and careful with his words, compassionate, had money, his suit was fitted, and has a big wide smile. He encouraged us to stay for the training. We had to pay but my up line paid for it. I’m like fine what else am I going to do? Maybe I’ll learn their secrets or something. And boom. Just like that they got me.
It was the speaker that got me. He had everything I wanted AND they even told me how this can help me retire my family out of work. You’d get a chance to network with people and you’d have trainings...that you paid for. The trainings had bits of self development. Some good, some questionable. But it was all a system. It was meant to keep you to keep coming in every weekend. It was meant to get you high for the week, and when you dip, you come right back in to trainings. All of the events, the meetings, small group meetings, it’s meant for you to stay on for as long as you can. They knew most people wash out so they try to keep even people who made $0 by actively getting them to the hotel events. Everything had an answer, a well crafted one until you do actual research. Why aren’t the events free? Oh because we have to pay the hotels for the space and to compensate the people for their time. Right. Well why are the trainings repetitive? Because most people don’t remember the basics. Well why all of these extra books? Because it’s for your benefit. Why are you pressuring me to take the bigger pack if it’s only really 3 starter packs? Because you want to start as big as possible and have product on hand. All well crafted responses. I got suckered into paying the high package (sold my laptop for it and a few things) and got my gf into it. It was hell. More and more my family turned away. Thing is they don’t tell you that some mid level success stories are just families who all go under one person.
The compensation plan was even more ridiculous. The products were overpriced for what you got. You had to auto ship every month of over $200 worth of products in order to keep your points or it all goes away. You get people to sign up and then plug them into the system. Go to the meetings to self improve. Repeat a few cycles until the regional meetings and then the Annual conference. But you never make any money. Or if you do, it’s never enough to repay what you owe because you’re always buying or paying something to the company. Yes there we’re retail sales but they would tell you that’s not how big businesses work. Recruiting is big business thinking. All of the trainings make you into a better salesman and the books you buy from them help you maintain that millionaire mindset. The people who were on the low range were cool. Some enthusiastic but honestly they lacked critical thinking skills. They blindly believed everything and looked up to Robert Kiyosaki and Trump. I was one of these idiots. I bought the books, I tried to get people at my school on it, sold very little product, would push my viewpoints-I was that kid. Eventually one day I was walking downtown where I saw an National Guard poster. I found my solution to pay auto ship.
I go to the conference and I’m sold for life. There’s speakers, I drink for the first time, we experienc Vegas, and my girlfriend and I start to have problems. She quits and we’re still together but my selfish dumbass self would beg her to come. I tried so hard to be like them and more and more I slowly get angry. I suppressed that anger because I’m not supposed to be mad. It goes against my self development plus it’s cringy. I go to basic, come back (split ops) and the year wraps up...with me and her not making anything. Our relationship starts to fall, I start to realize maybe this was a bad thing, but I can’t quit now. I’m in the guard, spent all of this money, time-hell I walked in a snowstorm for 50 minutes to get to a meeting. I fail out of college but no matter. The guard and YOR Health will take care of me. Thing is, I switched my MOS to infantry. I’m not saying I have any mental issues or whatnot but I’ll say that I became disillusioned with it all. At one point I realized I enlisted just so I can pay my autoship. And here I am risking my life so some fatass back at home can continue to indulge in their blind obese self. So I have a mental break down and was chaptered out of the Guard. Fuck it.
My up line was always trying to be like an older brother but one thing he did that I hated was that he paid for my annual ticket and flight and hotel while I was at Ft. Benning. I leave Ft. Benning, so out of it that when he called all excited that he got the stuff for me, I started to spiral. I went anyways because it was not refundable. Of course. And I told him before I left for Ft. Benning that I hope to go if I can afford it. I go to the conference and it’s bad. I finally saw through everything. It’s all the same story. They told me about the system a few meetings before, to my face but I wasn’t picking up on it. I was like not there or something. I slept through Sheriff Lee Baca’s story (recently is in jail for an unrelated matter), got drunk that same night to let off everything. Try to make the best out of it but my gf hates every minute of it. Her friend who got suckered in wants to bail and tells us everything. I break down again but I agree to stop autoship payments once we get back. I stop going. I stop responding. I get a job and I try to go back to college. I’m all messed up. My money is gone since I gave it all to my up line. But I’m short of $100 out of paying over $2600. Whatever.
I paid literally in full and then the last bit I would work through winter to finally pay him back. But time goes by. I honestly forgot that I owed at that point since he never contacted me and I never went to the meetings. But hey I paid the man upfront $2500 from the last bit of money I had from basic and whatever I had before. Fine that chapters done. Until one day he shows up in Dec 2013 at my job. I say “Hey how’s it going?” and chat briefly but my manager is telling me to go do something. He brings up “So when are you going to pay that $100?”
I’m a bit annoyed since I told him he could’ve texted me. I didn’t want to get mad because he was there for me many times. Yes he felt like an older brother but today he wasn’t that way. I bet he was mad that I stopped coming around but he knew my situation. I just got this job and I’m commuting to school. I told him not at my job man. It’s too much for me. He walks out, says “Wow, ok. Wow.” And I never see him again. 2 years ago I learned he had ALS and died. He left two kids and his wife who I met when she was just his gf. So much wasted time. So much bottled up. I’m still affected by this and I’m only now starting to recover. Most of their money comes from secondary sources outside of the company, like reselling iPhones in Asia or through other sketchy businesses. Most don’t make any money. Just stay away. I’ve got some mental shit I have to go through and start sorting out my life again.
submitted by MoisesZPinda to antiMLM [link] [comments]

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Goliath Casino Review

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Is Goliath Casino a Real Goliath in the Industry?

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submitted by casinogy to u/casinogy [link] [comments]

I’m 31 years old, make $43,000, live in Lexington, KY, and work in State Government.

(I posted another MD here on the sub last July, so this is a follow up!)

Section One: Assets and Debt

Retirement Balance:
Savings account balance:
Checking account balance: $231.59
Credit card debt: $0. I paid off a 0% balance earlier in the month and now I’m trying to pay the balances as I use them. I’m trying to use them mainly for monthly charges and less for everyday spending. CC #1 is auto pay for internet, CC #2 is auto pay for Sirius XM radio (quarterly), CC #3 is auto pay for cell phone. I sometimes use CC #3 for everyday purchases, it gets good rewards, but I’m trying not to get sucked into the rewards vortex again.
Loan debt: $0. I made my last payment for my car loan and my last student loan in July 2018. I’ve been loan free since then!

Section Two: Income Main Job

Monthly Take Home: $2,350/month (minus all taxes and deductions). I get paid twice a month.
Deductions:
Side Gig Month Take Home: No recurring side gigs.
Any Other Monthly Income: None, just the main job take home.

Section Three: Expenses

Rent: $650/month
Renters Insurance: $152.20/year
Savings Contribution: $100/month to account A, $50/month to account B, $200/month to account C, and $300/month to account D.
Investment Contribution: Nothing beyond the 401k.
Donations: $5/month to alma mater, $8/month to local NPR station, and then usually $100/year in random other donations.
Electric: $47/month
Water: $27/month
Wifi: $38.59/month
Cellphone: $43.45/month (prepaid service, I bought my phone used last year)
Netflix: $9.80/month
Spotify + Hulu: $10.59/month
Extra Apple iCloud Storage: $0.99/month
SiriusXM: $42.19/quarter
NY Times Crossword: $42.35/year
Car Insurance: $553/six months

Day 1 - Thursday, 2/20
6:15 am - Rush around as I slept through (maybe snoozed) my alarm. I quickly blend up a smoothie I assembled last night (random greens, peaches, cherries, berries, spinach, and protein powder) and pack up my lunch: spicy pork noodles with peanuts, broccoli, an apple, a banana, and an orange. I also put a little half and half in a jar so I can make coffee at work. I rinse my face, put on Clinique moisture surge moisturizer, pop in some contacts, and brush my teeth. I toss my make up bag in my purse and run out the door.
7:40 am - Get to work a smidge late. I quickly put on some mascara (Tarte Gifted), Cover Girl loose powder, and a random Estee Lauder eyeshadow. I get to work on a project I’ve been working on all week. I also make a cup of coffee and drink my smoothie throughout the morning.
9:30 am - Break time. I make another cup of coffee and work on today’s crossword. Thursdays are always so tricky, so I don’t get too far. Also throughout the work day I listen to podcasts. Today’s line up is Armchair Expert (which I started last month so I’ve been catching up), Up First, and Terrible, Thanks for Asking.
10:00 am - I go ahead and make a credit card payment for my cell phone bill that just posted ($43.45, included in monthly expenses).
12:00 pm - Lunch time. I heat up my lunch and read today’s Money Diary. 99% of the time I bring lunch with me to work. I always eat it away from my desk, to give myself a little break.
12:30 pm - Back to work and more project. I also end up eating a mandarin orange cup (already had at my desk), the apple, and the banana that I packed sometime throughout the afternoon.
4:00 pm - Done with work. When I get back to town to stop at the pharmacy and pick up some prescriptions. I use my FSA card to pay. ($22.91)
4:50 pm - Back to my apartment. I unpack my lunch bag and my tote and try and tidy up a bit. Then I go full lazy and just plop on the couch. My friend N texts me about hanging out, we decide to snack and watch a movie.
6:30 pm - N texts me he’s headed home with the snacks and to come over whenever. I change into comfy clothes and grab a bottle of red wine and a couple ciders to contribute to the mix.
6:45 pm - Get to N and E’s house and there’s already a spread of snacks: chips, chips, more chips, tots, and more (I swear it wasn’t just potatoes, just don’t remember what else there was, haha). I have some wine with my snacks and we decide on “Uncut Gems” to watch. It is good, with a wild ending!
9:30 pm - I head home and try to get things ready for the morning. I do a sink full of dishes, grind some coffee, and pull out my blender to make a smoothie in the morning. Then I wash my face, put on a little Sunday Riley Good Genes, FAB Beauty Ultra Repair Cream, brush my teeth, and take my allergy medicine.
10:30 pm - Finally crawl into bed and work on a crossword for 10 minutes before I turn off the lights.
Total spent: $0

Day 2 - Friday, 2/21
5:15 am - Up with my alarm today. I hop out of bed and put away the clean dishes from last night, set up the electric kettle for coffee and then go take a shower.
5:30 am - After showering I put on a serum and Clinique moisture surge moisturizer. I also put a little ultra repair cream on my forehead (I have a very dry/sensitive spot there, I avoid putting most other products on it) and my nose, trying to keep my whole face happy is hard. I sit on the couch for a few minutes while I drink my coffee and watch the news. Eventually I get up, put in my contacts, put on mascara (Milk Kush), elf Primer Putty, Cover Girl concealer, Cover Girl loose powder, a shade from the Naked 3 palette, and a little swipe of the FAB Beauty ultra repair lip therapy.
6:15 am - I make a smoothie (greens, peaches, cherries, berries, and protein powder) and add some frozen broccoli to a stir fry I made earlier in the week. I pack both of those up with a mandarin orange cup, an apple, and a strawberry watermelon seltzer water. I get dressed, brush my teeth, make a cup of coffee to take with me, and tie up the garbage to take out.
6:40 am - It is freezing outside so I bundle up and grab all of my things to leave. I drop my garbage off as I walk to my car.
7:15 am - I mobile order Starbucks on my way to work so I swing by and pick it up. I got a grande Americano with a splash of cream and extra cinnamon powder. I loaded $30 onto my card in January so I use that to pay ($3.13 + $1.00 tip). I always go to Starbucks on Fridays as a way to celebrate the end of the week. I try and reload my card when a credit card has a cash back offer. CC #1 had a 5% back offer in January, which is why I reloaded then. CC #3 has the offer now, so I’ll probably use that one to reload when my balance runs out. I try not to go any other day, to keep it a treat-y thing.
7:30 am - Get to work and jump straight into it. I drink my Starbucks and get a cup of water. Today’s work podcast lineup is Up First, Armchair Expert, and Why Won’t You Date Me? I also eat a mini Hershey’s bar that I had in my desk.
9:30 am - Break time. I sip my smoothie while I attempt today’s crossword. I also help out a couple of coworkers.
11:30 am - I get up and my earring falls out. I realize I lost the back to it and I retrace my steps and my efforts are futile. I put the earring in my bag so I don’t lose it, but I leave the other one in.
12:00 pm - Lunch time. I heat up my food and, again, eat it while I read today’s Money Diary.
4:00 pm - Leave work.
4:50 pm - Back in town, and it’s happy hour time! I meet E and S at our usual spot. They have drink specials and food specials (always important). I get a glass of red wine, wings, and a side of french fries.
5:30 pm - Squeeze in another glass of wine before happy hour ends. We decide to all head back to E’s house and hang out after we finish up. $29.38 (including tip)
6:15 pm - We walk back to E’s house and enjoy more wine while we hang out.
7:30 pm - Oh no, another bottle of wine appears.
9:45 pm - Finally call myself a Lyft to head home. $7.00 (including tip, I had a promo code that made the ride a little cheaper)
10:00 pm - Home, and I’m so excited to see my couch. I change into comfy clothes and lounge on the couch. I end up finishing an episode of Armchair Expert and put on some old episodes of Catfish. I take out my contacts, swipe a little micellar water on my face, and quickly brush my teeth. I finally get into bed around midnight.
Total spent: $36.38

Day 3 - Saturday, 2/22
8:00 am - Not sure why I’m awake, but I take the opportunity to get up, drink some water, and brush my teeth. And then promptly get back in bed.
10:00 am - Ok, this seems more reasonable. Wash my face more thoroughly and moisturize. I move to the couch, with more water, and try and decide the best way to get back to my car. I contemplate a Lyft, but that seems excessive. I put on some more Catfish to entertain myself. Finally I manage to convince my friend to try a new restaurant with me, and then I’ll mooch a ride from them.
12:45 pm - We walk over to Roulay for brunch. It’s brand spanking new and this is their first brunch. It’s a pretty small menu, but everything looks delicious. We get beignets, coffee, fried alligator, waffles, and shrimp and grits.Everything is super delicious and we’re excited to come back and try everything else. $26.46 (including tip)
2:00 pm - Nicely get a ride back to my car and then drive back to my apartment. I do the dishes and continue the momentum by doing my laundry. My building has a washedryer in it and there’s no charge for them, it’s amazing. I do 2 loads of laundry while I catch up on my shows: Grey’s Anatomy, Law & Order SVU, Will & Grace, and probably more.
6:00 pm - Laundry done and put away (always an accomplishment). Shower happens too.
7:30 pm - Brunch really satisfied me and a full meal doesn’t seem appealing. I decide I need some food though, so I pour a bowl of cinnamon frosted flakes.
11:30 pm - Not quite sure what else I did tonight, nothing too productive though. Eventually brush my teeth and get in bed.
Total spent: $26.46

Day 4 - Sunday, 2/23
8:00 am - Wake up and lay in bed for a while. Get up and make the bed (I do this every morning). When I get up I make some coffee and drink it while I listen to yesterday’s episode of Up First. I put away the clean dishes and tidy up the kitchen, it can get so crowded and messy throughout the week.
9:00 am - Settle in to finally catch up on This is Us. There is so much happening this season.
12:45 pm - Motivate myself to run a few errands. I go to Joseph Beth to try and pick up a book I ordered for a friend’s new baby, but they cannot find it anywhere. They look through basically the whole store and are so flummoxed because it’s not where to be found. They offer to order it for me again, and of course I don’t pay for it because I prepaid for the first copy. It should be in in a couple days. I also stop by Target and return a part of a gift I didn’t end up using ($11.64 back on my card). For a brief second I contemplate looking around for things I don’t need, but I restrain myself and just walk back to the car. Drive over to Warby Parker and get my glasses adjusted. I got them a couple weeks ago and they’re a little loose, they keep sliding down my nose. I am in and out in 5 minutes with snug glasses.
1:45 pm - On my way home I decide that nachos would be delicious and I have no interest in cooking. I call in an order to go. I swing by and pick them up and head home. $13.28 (including tip)
2:15 pm - Enjoy my nachos while I watch more Catfish. I can never understand the people on this show, so much cringe.
5:00 pm - Get in the shower and use one of my favorite hair products (Virtue Restorative Treatment Mask). It smells so good and makes my hair feel amazing.
6:00 pm - I sit down to paint my nails, so of course I don’t touch anything for an hour afterwards just to preserve my nails. After they’re fully dry I eat the rest of my nachos.
11:00 pm - Again, the night is a blur. I set up things for coffee and smoothie in the morning, brush my teeth, and get in bed.
Total spent: $13.28

Day 5 - Monday, 2/24
6:00 am - Slow goings on Monday, of course. Start the coffee, rinse my face, put in contacts, put on FAB serum and moisturizer, and same makeup as usual. I make a smoothie (greens, grapes, peach, berries, and protein powder) and pack up my lunch and breakfast.
6:50 am - Make a coffee to go and hit the road.
7:30 am - Arrive at work. Drink coffee and smoothie, eat a mini Kit Kat too for good measure.
12:00 pm - Lunch time. My leftovers are pretty sad at this point, but I power through. I also drink a mini Diet Coke I brought from home.
12:30 pm - When I get back to my desk I eat a cup of mandarin oranges and a cup of diced mangoes.
2:30 pm - Break time, and enjoy some Thin Mints. I sound like all I did was eat this day, I swear there was work happening too!
4:00 pm - Get in my car to leave and my gas level is almost in the danger zone. I decide to chance it and get it when I get back to town.
4:30 pm - Roll up to the gas station almost on fumes. I fill up my tank. $14.00 Then I go to Kroger and get things for the week: cucumber, peppers, bananas, apples, spinach, blueberries,refried beans, turmeric spice tea, sleepytime time, coconut milk, pasta sauce, lentils, cheese (ricotta), cheese (parmesan), more cheese (queso fresco), frozen broccoli, frozen orange chicken, frozen meal, toilet paper, and vitamins. $56.28
5:20 pm - Get home and put away the groceries and make the frozen orange chicken for dinner. I also make some rice to serve it over. It’s pretty good.
7:30 pm - Head to trivia a little early so I can watch Jeopardy before. I order a beer when I get there.
8:00 pm - My trivia partner arrives! We do pretty well the first half. I order another beer during the second half.
10:00 pm - We place! Our betting strategy pays off. We split the winnings and I end up adding the tip to my balance. $11.00
10:15 pm - Back home. I take a quick shower, brush my teeth, and do the sink full of dishes. Then, bed.
Total spent: $81.28

Day 6 - Tuesday, 2/25
3:40 am - Wake up very confused and thinking I overslept. I look at the time and almost immediately fall back asleep.
6:00 am - Now, up for real. I rinse my face off, put on some moisturizer, put in contacts, put on makeup, and brush teeth. I pack up lunch, chips and salsa leftover from the to go food on Sunday, mango cup, banana, and apple.
6:50 am - Hit the road.
7:30 am - Get to work and immediately make a cup of coffee.
9:30 am - Eat the chips and salsa for breakfast. Weird choice, put delicious. Also make another cup of coffee. Today’s podcasts are Up First and Armchair Expert.
11:15 am - Someone says they’re getting pizza for lunch and I’m easily persuaded. I get a personal pan pizza and drink. I don’t have any cash on me, but I’ll hop down to the ATM later.
12:00 pm - This pizza is delicious and so much better than my sad, old packed lunch.
2:30 pm - I head to the ATM with the intent of getting cash but it says they’re going to charge me an additional $2 charge, which seems silly. (Later I looked into this and my bank would have reimbursed me for this fee, in addition to the standard “not their ATM fee.” So next time I’ll just get the money, knowing I’ll be reimbursed for the fees.) Instead I tell my coworker I’ll pay them back tomorrow. Of course they say that’s fine, so I set myself a reminder to stop by my bank’s ATM. I also go ahead and email Allure Beauty Box to cancel my subscription. I prepaid for a 3 month subscription in December, but I have no need to continue. I already have way too many things to get through. I did get a lot of good products from the 3 boxes I got though, plus they always release full spoilers way in advance so you know if you’ll like it or not.
4:00 pm - Time to head home. When I get home I unpack my bags and get into comfortable clothing.
5:30 pm - I heat up leftover orange chicken and rice and add some frozen sauteed kale to the bowl. I also pack up the rest of the leftovers for lunch tomorrow. I forgot to thaw the ground beef lasagna roll ups I was going to make for lunches, so this will do. I also go ahead and put the ground beef in the fridge so I can make them tomorrow.
7:00 pm - I watch Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy, one of my favorite nightly activities.
8:00 pm - I read a little of A Selfie as Big as the Ritz by Lara Williams. I really enjoyed Supper Club so I decided to give this a try. So far it’s good. I got it from the library. If you’re not a member of your local library, join now!
9:00 pm - Take my make up off, wash my face, use some Bare Essentials serum I got in my last Allure Box, FAB Ultra Repair Cream, and random eye cream. I floss (finally finished this thing of floss!) and brush my teeth.
10:15 pm - Not feeling super tired so I make some tea. I laugh a little that I’m drinking my sleepytime tea from a Cafe du Monde mug, not exactly a wild Fat Tuesday over here. I do wish I had eaten some beignets today though.
11:00 pm - Finally crawl into bed.
Total spent: $0

Day 7 - Wednesday, 2/26
6:00 am - Wake up and start the coffee. I rinse my face, put on some FAB serum and moisturizer, and brush my teeth. Then I get dressed, pack up my leftovers and a mango cup, make the coffee to go, and head out the door. I leave a couple minutes early so I can swing by the ATM.
6:45 am - Swing through the ATM and get cash out for yesterday’s pizza. $6.00 I realize as I’m pulling out of the ATM that I forgot to put on any jewelry before I left the house. This feels strange.
7:30 am - Get to work, give the cash to my coworker, and get to work.
9:30 am - I’ve already had a delicious breakfast of Girl Scout cookies (Thanks A Lots), so I make another cup of coffee. I work on today’s crossword and, quite frankly, crush it.
12:00 pm - Lunch time. I eat and read MDs.
2:30 pm - Aimlessly peruse Sephora’s website to see if there’s anything I need. Surprise, there is not. Why do I do this to myself!?
4:00 pm - Leave work. On the commute home I hear there’s an accident that may affect my route.
4:30 pm - Get right into town and already see traffic. I make this so much harder on myself and attempt to try another path.
5:15 pm - Everyone else had the same idea. I try another route and I just keep getting stuck and frustrated. I feel so trapped in this mess of traffic. I know everyone else is too, but still. I silently rage and get myself on another path.
6:30 pm - I almost cry as I finally walk through my front door. Not being in control of my situation is so maddening to me. I pour myself a glass of wine from a box I have and sit on the couch. I read about the accident and see there were multiple fatalities and now I feel like a dunce. I remind myself to be thankful that I’m here in one piece and let a little chaos go.
7:00 pm - Watch Wheel of Fortune and contemplate dinner. I had big, big plans to roast veggies for tacos for dinner tonight, make lasagna rolls for lunches, and chop up veggies for snacks. That is not happening now. Instead I opt for a bowl of buttery, cheesy pasta. I watch jeopardy while I eat.
10:30 pm - Wash my face, put on some retinol and moisturizer, brush my teeth, and get in bed. I read a little and play solitaire on my phone before I fall asleep.
Total spent: $6.00

Weekly Total Spent: $163.40
Food + Drink: $102.02
Fun + Entertainment: $40.38
Home + Health: $0
Clothes + Beauty: $0
Transport: $21.00

Reflection: This week seems pretty average. I spend most of my money on food and drink. I don’t usually eat out 3 times in one weekend, so that’s a little odd. I try to limit my work week spending so I can splurge a little on weekends. This has really shown me that I need to look more into my pension! It’s such a hard system to log into that I normally ignore it, but I need to plan quarterly reviews of it, just to keep tabs of it. Since I got rid of my CC debt, I’m hoping to really build up my emergency fund and then start living on last month’s income (keep enough in my account for 1 month worth of expenses). I am a total numbers nerd and if my calculations/budgets are correct this should happen by the end of the summer.
submitted by kykolonel to MoneyDiariesACTIVE [link] [comments]

I just spent the last two days coming up with my sushi order for supper tonight (massive fucking TW)

Because I’m fucking neurotic, I weighed out two edamame beans (2 grams, but if I weighed only one, the scale wouldn’t register it fml).
So 85 grams of edamame beans is 90 calories, and 1 gram of edamame beans is 1.0588 calories (round that up to 1.06 calories). So I’m allowing myself 10 pods of edamame (there’s about 2 or 3 beans per pod, averaging out to 2.5 beans per pod), coming out to a total of 26.47 calories (round up to 27) for the 10 pods of edamame.
(Side note,fuck whoever came up with the naming convention for edamame because shelled edamame somehow means both beans in the shell and beans out of the shell????)
I think my local sushi place uses instant miso packets (their miso soup looks the same as my instant miso soup lol), so I’m gonna say my cup of miso soup is probably gonna be 35 calories.
Moving onto my rolls cause I’m a vegetarian and don’t eat fish - 6 cucumber maki pieces (aka kappa maki) is somewhere between 120-136 calories, so I’ll go with 136.
Avocado maki is approx. 140 calories for 6 pieces?? Seems kinda low considering it’s only 4 more calories than the cucumber maki but ok...
Oshinko maki (Japanese pickled daikon radish) is probably comparable to the cucumber roll, so I feel comfortable saying like 128 calories.
My local sushi place also makes avocado and cucumber rolls (with rice on the outside, not inside of the nori), and I bet those are a bit more calorific. I found a picture of Wegman’s avocado and cucumber maki that was 230 calories for 8 pieces. I’m only going to have 4, so cut that down to 115 calories.
My final and most calorific roll for the night is an inari and avocado maki roll (with pieces of inari inside the roll). There is NO nutritional information on the restaurant’s website because they’re not a chain.
So I have to fucking math it out. The rice is on the outside, like the A/C roll, minus the cucumber. I’m having four of this too, so let’s start with 110. Plus the inari pocket (deep fried tofu), which Myfitnesspal says is 32 calories per piece. I’ll be generous and say my restaurant uses 3 pieces per roll, which comes out to 96 calories for six maki pieces (64 for the 4 pieces I’m having).
But alas, there’s tempura flakes in the roll as well. 6 calories per gram (I almost passed out at this 🤙), and I’ll say they use 10 grams per 6 piece roll (7ish grams - 40 calories - for the four pieces I’m having). AND to top it off, there’s sriracha mayo in this bitch. (It’s a delicious roll. I hate myself for having it. Can’t not have it though, so here I am.) I’m exhausted at this point, so I said 90 calories for a tablespoon.
Adding up to 306 for 4 pieces. I’m gonna round that all the way up to 310 for any math I may have fucked up on.
No soy sauce because I don’t love myself.
So, in total, my dinner tonight is going to be drumroll please 891 calories. Round that bitch right up to 900 just because I’m a piece of shit.
Now that I’ve wasted two of my days and probably 5 minutes of yours, I have about half an hour to get ready for supper!!!! (Why am I the way I am)
Feel free to let me know how wrong my calorie counts are in the comments!!!!
submitted by bollarcones to EDAnonymous [link] [comments]

Great Games with Traditional Playing Cards For All Occasions

Great Games with Traditional Playing Cards

Most people have learned a handful of traditional card games at best, but the truth is that there is just a whole world of wonderful card games out there, just waiting to be discovered and explored. I have a large collection of other modern games, but over the years I have learned a lot of card games with a traditional deck, and I find myself often coming back to them - especially when I have a custom deck in my hands!
So here is a list of some of my favourite traditional games with standard playing cards, arranged alphabetically within three main categories: social and family games, trick-taking games, and non trick-taking games. Included at the end of the list is a section with books about games with playing cards that I own and can recommend, along with links to some other resources. Each game has a direct link to where you can find the rules on Pagat.com, which is the most authoritative and comprehensive website with rules for games with traditional playing cards. I've also noted the number of players each game is suitable for. It is worth noting that several of these games are particularly excellent for just two players.
Although some more recently invented games are included, for the most part the emphasis of this list is on traditional card games that have stood the test of time in some way, and we are not concerned here with using a standard deck to play modern games. Obviously there are many other games that can be played with a standard deck of cards besides the ones included here. This list is not intended to be exhaustive, but just represents the ones are most well-known, and for the most part are games that I have personally tried and enjoyed, or ones that I know are good classics that are worthwhile learning. I hope this will encourage you to stretch yourself outside of your comfort zone, and that you will take the time to learn and explore some new territory. Believe me, it is really worth it, because there are some truly fantastic games here!

Social and Family Games

This category is somewhat arbitrary in that some of the card games in the other categories can also be enjoyed socially or with children, and the games in this category are certainly not just for children. But if I was looking for a fun and lighter game that is easy to learn and play, these are all excellent choices.
Blitz (2-12 players) - A popular and casual/social card game, also known as "Scat", "Thirty-One", "Ride the Bus", and "Blitz". By drawing and discarding a card each turn, the aim is to try to improve your three card hand to have the closest to 31 points in one suit.
Cheat (3-13 players) - Also called "I Doubt It" or "Bullsh**", this is a game many children have played. The aim is to be the first to get rid of all your cards, and you can bluff about what cards you are playing on a turn, but if you get challenged and caught out you have to pick up the entire pile.
Egyptian Ratscrew (2-6 players) - This is a quick-slapping game that is like Slap Jack on steroids, and has been published commercially under the name Slamwich.
Fan Tan (3-6 players) - Also known as "Sevens", "Domino", "Parliament", and "Pay or Play". In turns players play a card to a common layout, which will begin with sevens as the foundation for each suit. Once a seven is played, you can build up or down on that suit, with the aim to be the first to play all your cards.
GOPS (2 players) - A simple and quick bidding/bluffing game for two players. The Diamonds are point cards corresponding to their value, and revealed one at a time in random order. Players each get an entire suit as their hand (Clubs or Spades), and play a card of their choice, with the revealed point card going to the higher played card. GOPS is an acronym for "Game Of Pure Strategy", since there is zero luck.
Knock Out Whist (2-7 players) - Also called "Trumps", this is a simplified version of Whist, where the aim is to avoid elimination after each hand by winning at least one trick. The first hand has seven tricks, and it becomes harder to stay in the game because each successive hand has one less trick. A perfect game to introduce people to trick-taking.
Mao (2-7 players) - This game has especially been popular in college and university crowds since the 1960s, and the aim is not just to win but to have fun. Essentially it is a Crazy Eights variant with special additions, but the rules may not be discussed; new players are expected to try to figure out the rules by observing a game and by trial and error. Theoretically there are overtones of Mornington Crescent, Fizzbin, and Calvinball, but Mao is actually a playable game.
Palace (2-6 players) - Also called "Sh**head" or "Karma". A very light casual game, where the aim is to avoid being last to get rid of your cards. Players each have a row of three face down cards, a row of three face up cards covering these, and a hand of three cards. On your turn you play cards equal or higher than the card on the discard pile, otherwise you pick up the entire pile.
President (3-16 players) - Classically known as "Chairman," "Scum," or "A**hole", and fun for groups, this is an easy introduction to the family of climbing games. The aim is to get rid of cards as soon as possible, and you must play at least as many cards as the previous player, but with higher values. Depending on the order in which players go out, a new hierarchy of players is established. A variation of this was published commercially as The Great Dalmuti. For more advanced climbing games, see Big Two later on this list.
Ranter-Go-Round (3-12 players) - This is also known as "Chase The Ace" or "Cuckoo", with slight variations. A simple game of passing cards around, with a high luck element, the player with the lowest card at the end loses a chip, and the aim is to avoid being eliminated by losing your chips.
Rummy (2-6 players) - A classic card game, in which players draw and discard cards, trying to get "melds" that typically consist of sets of the same values or runs of consecutive values. Many variants exist, including Gin Rummy, which is an excellent game and appears later on this list, as well as some commercially published games like the Mystery Rummyseries. Contract Rummy (3-5 players) also developed from Rummy, and adds the complication that in each round players have to fulfil a different contract, which is a fixed combination of sets or runs, that they must have before they can meld. A version of Contract Rummy was published commercially under the name Phase Ten.
Scopa (2-6 players) - A fascinating classic Italian card game that is especially good for two players, and for four players as a partnership game called Scopone. Players are using cards in their hand to "capture" point-scoring cards from a common pool, with captured cards matching or adding up to the value of the card played from hand. Also recommended is Escoba(3-4 players), which is the Spanish name for the Scopa di Quindici variant common in Brazil, in which you capture cards that add to a total of 15 by including a card from your hand. Closely related to Scopa is Cassino, which has gives some added options for play, and appears later on this list.
Speed (2-4 players) - Also called "Spit", this a high speed game similar in style to Nertz (see later on this list), but slightly easier and more suitable for children. The aim is to be the first to get rid of all your cards by simultaneously and quickly playing cards of higher or lower value to a common stock.
Spoons (2-8 players) - A hilarious game for kids or large groups, also known as "Pig" or "Donkey". Players have four cards and simultaneously pass a card to the left, trying to get a set of four matching cards, at which point they take a spoon from the center, which is the signal for everyone to grab a spoon - but there is one less spoon available than the number of players! "My Ship Sails" is a variation that has the aim to collect seven cards of the same suit.

Trick-Taking Games

Trick taking games are one of the most common types of card games, and classics like Hearts and Spades are good examples. It is a game where players all have a hand of cards, and game-play revolves around a series of "tricks", in which each trick involves everyone playing one card from their hand, with the trick typically going to the person who played the highest card. If you have never played a trick-taking game before, I suggest you start with Knock Out Whist, which was listed in the previous category, and is an excellent and fun way to get introduced to this style of game.
500 (4 players) - The national card game of Australia. A skilful trick-taking game where players bid for the number of tricks they think their partnership can win. The winning bidder is allowed to exchange several cards, and select the trump. There is much to love: the trick-taking; the bidding and selecting trump; the exchanging with the kitty to manipulate your hand; the playing in partnerships. A variant for three players also exists.
Bezique (2 players) - A classic trick-taker for two players that originated in France, was very popular in the early 20th century, and has some similarities to the two player version of the American game Pinochle.
Bridge (4 players) - The ultimate classic among trick-taking card games. It is played in partnerships, and gives much room for much skilful play. Contract Bridge is often played in organized club settings, and the bidding and game-play has an extensive series of conventions that can take some time to learn in order to play well.
Briscola (2-6 players) - An Italian trick-taking game that is quite easy to learn and play especially as a two player game. Using just 40 cards, the aim is play tricks from your hand of three in order to win point scoring cards. Apparently this is especially good with the five player Briscola Chiamata variant.
Euchre (4 players) - Extremely popular as a social game in parts of Canada and the USA, Euchre can especially be fun when played in a casual tournament setting. Just 24 cards are used, with the Jacks being powerful "bowers". One partnership is trying to win the most tricks from a five card hand, with trump determined by a turned up card. Ecarte (2 players) is an excellent trick-taking game that is very similar to Euchre, but better suited for a two player game.
German Whist (2 players) - An excellent Whist style game for two players. Each player has a hand of 13 cards, and the first phase involves each person playing a card in order to compete for the face up card from the top of the stock (the very first card shown is the trump suit); the winner gets that card, the loser gets the next face-down card. When the stock is gone, you play out your remaining 13 cards, and the player winning the most tricks is the winner.
Hearts (3-7 players) - One of the all time classic trick-taking games, where the aim is to avoid taking tricks with Hearts, since these are minus points, while the Queen of Spades is a whopping 13 minus points. There is no trump suit.
Jass (2-4 players) - The national Swiss game, playable with two players or in partnerships. This is part of the Jass family which originated in the Netherlands. The wider family includes Belote (French), Klabberjass/Clob (German), and Klaverjassen (Dutch). The Swiss Jass is somewhat similar to Bezique and Pinochle.
Le Truc (2 players) - This out-of-the-ordinary betting/bluffing/trick-taking game is a 19th century French game using a 32 card deck, and was especially popularized after inclusion in Sid Sackson's Gamut of Games. A brilliant bluffing game where you use a hand of three cards to play only three tricks, but can increase the value of a hand throughout the game, to bluff and cause your opponent to fold. Be aware of some rule variations. Both the French Le Truc and the Spanish Truc (which has 2 player partnerships) are derived from the older English game Put (2 players), which is a simpler two player bluffing game that I can also recommend.
Ninety-Nine (3 players) - This original game by David Parlett is regarded as one of the very best trick-taking games for exactly 3 players. Only 36 cards are used, and from a hand of 12 players lay aside three cards that represent the number of their bid, and play out the remaining 9 cards in tricks, trying to win exactly the number of tricks corresponding to their bid.
Oh Hell (3-7 players) - This goes under many names, including Up and Down the River, Bust, and some less savoury titles that are variations on Oh ***. A great trick taking game where you bid how many tricks you can win, while the hand size increases or decreases each round. The game enables considerable skill, because even with bad cards you score if you bid correctly. Numerous scoring variants exist, one being published commercially under the name Wizard.
Pinochle (4 players) - A popular and classic American trick-taking game for partnerships that uses an 48 card deck. Gameplay starts with an auction in which players bid how many points their team will win, with highest bidder picking trump. Each player gets a hand of 12 cards, and individual cards are worth points, as well as combinations of cards in hand (melds). A two-player variant of Pinochle using a single-deck also exists.
Piquet (2 players) - This classic game has a very long history going back several centuries. It is demanding since it has some old-fashioned complications, but is still popular, and regarded as one of the all-time best and most skilful card games for just two players.
Pitch (4 players) - Derived from the old English game All Fours, this game has especially been popular in parts of the USA, and there are many variations. Typically played in partnerships, it begins with a bidding round after players each are dealt six cards, and bid for many of the following four items they think they will have at the end of a hand: High trump, trick with low trump, trick with Jack of trumps, and highest total point value.
Rook (4 players) - Rook is a terrific partnership trick taking game with bidding that was even published commercially under that name with a special deck. The aim is to win tricks with point cards (e.g. the Rook=Joker card is worth 20 points), rather than the maximum number of tricks. The highest bidder has choice of trump, and can exchange with the "nest/kitty" in order to improve their hand. Several good variations exist, and in parts of Canada one of them is played under the name 200 (in French: Deux Cents).
Schnapsen (2 players) - Popular in many parts of Europe, Schnapsen is the national card game of Austria, and is a classic trick-taking card game for two players with a long history, and allows for genuinely skilful and clever play. Played with a small deck, one of its peculiarities is how points are scored for "marriages" (King-Queen couples). For a comprehensive look at the difference between the closely related Sixty Six, and common Schnapsen rule variations, see here and here.
Skat (3 players) - This classic trick-taking game is the national card game of Germany. It features complex scoring and bidding, but is one of the best card games for three players. A similar game with simpler bidding and scoring rules is Schafkopf, which was been Americanized and popularized by immigrants to the USA as Sheepshead. Also related is the demanding Doppelkopf (i.e. Double Sheepshead).
Spades (4 players) - One of the better trick taking games for partnerships, and another classic after being invented and popularized in the USA in the 1930s. Spades are always the trumps, and players bid how many tricks they think they will win in advance. Although the bidding and scoring is not the easiest if you are new to trick-taking games, it is a game that allows for more skill than casual games like euchre.
Whist (4 players) - A simple but classic trick-taking card game from which many others are derived. Played in partnerships, there is no trump, and teams try to win the most tricks as they play out a full hand of 13 cards. Good variations include titles elsewhere on this list, like German Whist (2 players) and Knock Out Whist (3-7 players).

Non Trick-Taking Games

Trick taking games are arguably one of the most popular and common types of card games, which is why they were listed as a separate category. But there are certainly a large number of other fantastic card games as well. Most of the games listed in the "Social and Family Games" category were also non tricking-taking games, but the games listed below tend to be a little more thoughtful and involved.
Big Two (4 players) - Best with four players (although variants for 2-3 players exist), this along with President (which appears earlier on this list) represents one of the more accessible and well-known climbing games. With the climbing genre, the idea is to be the first player to get rid of all your cards, playing cards individually or in special combinations. For a slightly easier climbing game than Big Two, consider Tien Len, which is the national card game of Vietnam. One of the most popular climbing games of all times is Tichu, which was published commercially with a special deck.
Canasta (4 players) - A game that became extremely popular in the 1950s, Canasta uses two standard decks, and is best in two-player partnerships. It is a rummy style of game in which the aim is to make melds of seven cards of the same value, and "go out" by playing your entire hand. There are also several variants, such as the popular Hand and Foot.
Cassino (2-4 players) - This classic card game is a "fishing" game that has some parallels to the simpler Scopa (see earlier on this list), and the Anglo-American version is especially popular. Players capture face-up cards in a common pool by playing matching cards from their hand, either individually or a number of cards that adds to a total equalling the card played from hand. Unlike Scopa, players have more options, and can also build cards together for later, which adds a more tactical element.
Cribbage (2 players) - A classic card name based on card combinations worth points, with the aim of being first to 121 points, scored by pegging on a board. Players each get a hand of six cards, and must set aside two to a "crib" which will later score for one of the two players. Cards are played in turns, adding their values together until you reach or near 31, and then this is repeated. Players score for combinations like cards that add to 15, pairs/triples, or runs, and also score for their hand at the end. Despite the casual feel, there is considerable skill, and experienced players will consistently outperform novices. Requires decision making for selecting cards for the crib, and which order to play the cards in hand. Even children will enjoy finding the point scoring combinations, while the imbalance/asymmetry of each game turn makes it especially interesting.
Eleusis (4-8 players) - A modern card game simulating scientific research, as players ("scientists") conduct experiments to determine the rule governing play. Players try to get rid of cards by discarding them, but the "rule" that allows legal play is invented by the dealer and is unknown to the players, and they must try to figure out the rule by deducing it from legal plays. Rummy (2-6 players) - A classic card game, in which players draw and discard cards, trying to get "melds" that typically consist of sets of the same values or runs of consecutive values. Many variants exist, including Gin Rummy, which is an excellent game and appears later on this list, as well as some commercially published games like the Mystery Rummyseries. Contract Rummy (3-5 players) also developed from Rummy, and adds the complication that in each round players have to fulfil a different contract, which is a fixed combination of sets or runs, that they must have before they can meld. A version of Contract Rummy was published commercially under the name Phase Ten.
Nertz (2-6 players) - Also known as "Racing Demon" or "Pounce", Nertz is a competitive multi-player solitaire that is played in real time. The aim is to be the first to get rid of cards from your Nertz piles by building upwards on common foundations. It is basically the same game as the commercially available Ligretto/Dutch Blitz, but played with a standard deck.
Poker (2-10 players) - This is considered the ultimate bluffing game, and No Limit Texas Hold 'Em has been popularized with the help of television and local tournaments. Players "bet" chips on whether or not they have the best five card poker hand. Many say it is only fun when played for money, suggesting that the thrill is in the gambling rather than the game-play. Even if you do not play for money, you do have to approach the game semi-seriously for it to be fun, otherwise it is too easy for someone to play foolishly and hand another player the game. A must for those who enjoy bluffing.
Spite & Malice (2-5 players) - Also known as "Cat & Mouse", this is a competitive patience/solitaire game for two or more players that uses two decks, and is better known to most people under its commercially produced variation, Skip-Bo. Unlike Speed and Nertz, it is not played simultaneously in real time, because players take turns, but the overall concept is somewhat similar.
Zetema (2 players) - This is an obscure Victorian card game that revived in popularity as a result of Sid Sackson's A Gamut of Games. David Parlett recommends it as an out-of-the-ordinary card game that is "long and savory". It is played with a 65-card deck (52 cards plus an additional two through Ace in one suit), and each player's objective is to reach a certain number of points scored by discarding assemblies, completing tricks, setting up marriages, or revealing flushes and sequences. Also playable with four or six players in partnerships.

Recommendations

So where should you start? Hopefully some of the descriptions I have provided will intrigue you enough to give a particular game a shot, or look into it further. But often games will depend on who you are playing with, the number of players you have, and the kind of game you are looking for. So to help you branch out beyond the repertoire that you might already be familiar with, here are some recommendations for games that I especially suggest for different situations.
Are you looking for...
- a game for just two players? GOPS and Scopa are two simpler games that are quite rewarding. If you want a trick-taking game for just two, then Briscola and German Whist are both straight forward and good choices, while Le Truc is fantastic for those who like bluffing, and Schnapsen is worth the effort to learn if you enjoy skilful play. Cribbage and Gin Rummy are two non trick-taking classics that are every bit as good today as they have always been.
- a game for four-players in partnerships? There are several good trick-taking games to choose from in this category, and while the ever-popular Bridge is good, the learning curve can be steep. I recommend starting with a simpler game like Euchre or Whist, or else something that involves more skill, like 500, Rook, or Spades, which incorporate the fun of bidding and give opportunity for a winning bidder to strengthen their hand.
- a trick-taking game for an odd number of players? Ninety-Nine is the best trick-taker that plays with exactly three players. Hearts and Oh Hell can both handle various player counts, and are very good; if you enjoy bidding for how many tricks you think you will win then Oh Hell is an absolute must.
- a light social game for a larger group? Try the classic climbing game President, the almost brainless Ranter-Go-Round, or the frenzy of Spoons, all of which are easy to learn and don not require too much brain power. Blitzand Cheat are also good choices for fun social games that can work with more than four players.
- a game that is fast-paced? Try the craziness of two player Speed/Spit, or else ramp up the difficulty slightly with the frantic game-play of the popular Nertz, both of which have simultaneous real-time game-play. Egyptian Ratscrew also requires quick reactions and speed.
- a game that is unusual and out-of-the-ordinary? Try the logical deduction required by the clever and inventive Eleusis, or the long and savoury gameplay of Zetema.
- a game for older children? Most of the games in the "Social and Family Games" category will work, but fun games that I have had good success with in playing with children include Cheat, Fan Tan, Knock Out Whist (which also serves as a good introduction to trick-taking), Palace, Speed, and Spoons. If they can handle the scoring system, Scopa is definitely a rewarding game that older children can enjoy. GOPS produces an excellent head-to-head battle-of-wits for just two.
- a game for younger children? There's a number of classic and very simple games not included on this list, such as Beggar My Neighbour (2-3 players), Crazy Eights (2-7 players), Go Fish (2-6 players), Old Maid (2-12 players), Slap Jack (2-8 players), Snap (2-4 players), and War (2 players). Be aware that some games like Beggar My Neighbour and also War involve no decisions and are a matter of pure luck!
So dust off that deck of playing cards that is looking down expectantly at you from the shelf, invite over some family or friends, and get those playing cards to the table. Enjoy your deck and discover the fun that traditional card games have been bringing people around the world for centuries!

Join the discussion: Do you ever play traditional card games, i.e. using a standard deck? Which traditional card games do you play the most, and what is it that keeps you coming back to them? And what are your thoughts and experiences with some of the listed games?
Author's note: I first published this article at PlayingCardDecks.com here.
submitted by EndersGame_Reviewer to boardgames [link] [comments]

Rose Hair Tarantula, G. Porteri/Rosea, Care Sheet

Rose Hair Tarantula, G. Porteri/Rosea, Care Sheet
As a good rule for purchasing any new tarantula, determine if your new 8 legged buddy is a sling, sub adult or adult.
Please see other posts under "Sexing" on this sub for further information on sexing your tarantula and how to determine if your tarantula is sexually mature. I may add in more details here at a later date
Adult coloration


Sling coloration
Always look up proper care for slings versus sub/adults as sling behavior may differentiate from adults and sub adults.
Tarantula Anatomy: Tarantulas have 4 sets of 2 legs, giving them a total of 8 legs. Each leg has a tiny set of toe nails and "toes". Tarantulas sometimes remove limbs if they perceive damage to them. Sometimes a tarantula will remove several if a trauma has occurred. The removed legs are capable of being grown back if the tarantula molts again.
Tarantula Anatomy
Often times the tarantulas pedipalps, palps, are confused for a smaller 5th set of legs but they serve an entirely different purpose. Palps to your tarantula compare to what arms are for people, minus the fingers. The tarantula utilizes their palps to assist with mating, maneuvering food, digging, exploring, and grooming. Tarantulas are very similar to cats in regards to their grooming habits. Specifically grooming for their feet.
Another odd part of a tarantulas anatomy are the small finger like structure protruding from the back of tarantula's abdomen. These are the tarantulas spinnerets and move like fingers as the tarantula lays down webbing. Which is why they are sometimes called "butt fingers".
Common Names: Rose hair tarantula, the Chilean fire tarantula, or the Chilean red-haired tarantula.
There are two types of "Rose Hair" Tarantulas. Check this thread out to determine if you have a G. Porteri or a G. Rosea. Types of Rose Hair tarantulas
While coloration vary and they have identifiers that set them as "two" separate species, it has been documented that one egg sac can produce both color variants.
Type: Terrestrial
Terrestrial tarantulas live on the ground and often utilize burrows. Slings of this species may burrow for long periods of time and often close off their burrows when prepping to molt.
Category: New world tarantula.
New World Tarantulas come from countries considered part of the New World (Examples: N & S America). They also are less defensive, have weaker venom than Old World (Examples: Asia, Australia) and utilize urticating hairs on their body as a defense. These hairs are flicked or rubbed off when they feel threatened and cause irritation to the skin, lungs, and eyes. Severity of irritation can vary depending on species.
More info on New World and Old World tarantulas.
More information on comparison between Old World and New World Bites (Arachnoboards bite reports)
Temperament: Docile but sometimes you get one with a bad attitude.
Note: Handling tarantulas is a risk to the tarantula. Tarantulas do not benefit from contact with their owner! If anything it typically causes stress to the tarantula and has risks to their safety. The heavier the tarantula, the higher the risk of fall damage if dropped. Most tarantulas taking a fall from 2' or higher will suffer damage and possibly death. Damage to limbs can be mitigated by the tarantula choosing to remove a leg. However, damage to a tarantula's abdomen can result in death. Once a tarantula suffers a split or damaged abdomen, there is very little they can do to stop from bleeding to death. However, some people try super glue, liquid bandage, or flour on the wound. Tarantulas move their limbs just like a hydraulic system so losing too much fluids will result in death. Handle at your risk and always remember tarantulas can't and won't build a relationship with you. They are incapable of doing so based on their biology.
"Tarantulas are like having a land based goldfish. Visual pets vs. Interactive".
Venom: Mild. Initial puncture, often not felt until itching begins, is described as "Similar to a bee sting" or "hot needle". After effects of a bite are described as "unsure if dry bite or not", "Very itchy", " It felt like a 4 needle shader" and "Slight stinging" but tend to not last long (10 minutes to 1 hour). Visible effects at bite site described as "raised red bump". Bite and bite reaction may depend largely on the size of tarantula, whether you receive a dry bite, and your individual reaction to their venom.
Arachnoboards Bite Report # 1 - # 30
Note: G. Rosea/Porteri are purchased as many new hobbyist very first tarantula. This means there is an increase in bite reports related to this species simply due to uneducated handling and more people owning them. The "Docile Tarantula" label only accounts for the tarantula species on average. While the species may be considered docile an individual tarantula can have a really bad temperament. A tarantula that is harassed or feels annoyed has a higher risk of biting. Please keep that in mind and minimize handling. All tarantulas can bite and most will if they feel anxious or threatened, no matter the species.
Urticating Hairs: The Genus Grammostola has type III and IV. Less likely to flick than other species but it's suggested you wear gloves during enclosure changes. This species lays down hairs in their enclosure and handling substrate can create contact with dropped hairs.
For those truly dedicated to tarantula knowledge, read this post breaking down urticating hairs, off Arachnoboards by mclusckysms
New World Tarantulas have urticating hairs that they use for self defense. Tarantulas can easily be irritated, some tarantulas don't hesitate to bite and some use the flick of their urticating hairs as their defense mechanism. Urticating hairs are small barbed bristles and when they come in contact with the human skin or membrane it can cause great irritation. The irritation can last for days, depending on the species. If an urticating hair gets into the eye it is advised to seek medical attention to prevent the eye from getting infected. There are six types of urticating hairs known and each differ in size and shape. The effect of each type is different. The urticating hair is categorized in Type I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Type III is known to be the most irritating.
Origin: Northern Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina.
Body length: 2.5"
Leg span width: 5" - 6"
Growth rate: Slow (some would say Slow AF)
Life expectancy: Females can become up to 20 to 25 years old. Males are given a shorter lifetime from 5 years.
Behavior: Rose hair tarantulas are often referred to as "pet rocks" as they aren't very active. Whether your tarantula prefers to sit in the middle of their enclosure or burrows, they don't tend to do much aside from chill. While all tarantulas can be surprising when they decide to bolt, Rose Hair tend to be less bolty and quite lazy about it. If they feel annoyed enough to bolt they will only go a few feet before stopping. Most of the time you're more likely to see this species slowly strut in it's chosen direction all while glaring at your general direction. An irritated Rose Hair may utilize it's front set of legs by raising them up and wacking at whatever is in it's space and while rare, may bite if truly upset. They also may flick hairs. They achieve this using their back set of legs rubbed against their abdomen, quite quickly, in a kicking motion. This would be the wrong moment to practice your focused breathing via an inhale.
This species is known to be quite the active burrower and will spend days perfecting their burrow while moving mountains of substrate directly onto of their water bowls. However, they often then decide it's entirely all wrong and start over. If you see your tarantula walking with a wadded up piece of dirt in it's palps, you can bet they are in decorating mode!!
Rose hairs tend to be incredibly docile and patient tarantulas. However, occasionally you get one that is not. People have described them as "demons", "worse than your most defensive Old World" and "quite rude" (the last quote is mine). If your intentions are to handle, be sure to know the temperment of your Rose Hair before attempting it. Learn their behaviors when anxious and listen to what they are telling you.
Don't let the fear of getting a "demon Rose Hair" discourage you from this awesome species. There is a reason they are one of the top first Ts in the hobby.
Rose Hair tarantulas can be incredibly picky eaters. Sometimes going a full year refusing food. Sometimes they refuse certain types of food, such as mealworms (mine follows the meal worms in the dirt tapping them then beats the tongs when I try to remove the worm, she is rude tho). Maintain clean water for them at all times, as they look silly drinking & it's essential, but don't panic if the eating slows or stops. As long as your tarantula's abdomen is proportionate (same size or double the size of carapace) you don't need be concerned. They will eat again! Some day.
All in all, Rose Hairs are very jolly pet rocks who look very silly doing what they do... when they actually do it.
Experience Level: (1/beginner, 10/expert): 1
Source: https://www.theraphosidae.be/en/grammostola-rosea/
Proper Enclosure: This tarantula needs more room width versus height. Height can actually harm your tarantula if it were to fall. The picture below is a good example of a basic Rose Hair enclosure. This person has utilized a storage bin, added ventilation holes, provided a start hide (wood round in this case) and offered some fake plants. Always include a water bowl for your tarantula.

Example of enclosure
Substrate: This species, even as adults, will burrow. Provide 6"-8" of substrate to allow this behavior as well as mediate a fall from top of enclosure. This species also prefers dry substrate as adults and often will avoid walking on damp/wet substrate. Slings require more moisture. As you can see in the photo here (below), this species will sometimes climb. Substrate is a great way to ensure a fall from the top of the enclosure will not harm your tarantula.

This tarantula has climbed it's glass wall. It also has decorations in the enclosure and not enough substrate. A fall from this height could hurt the tarantula, especially if it fell on the wood decorations.
Temperature and heating options: For most species, G. Rosea/Porteri included, if you're comfortable in the room, they are as well. Tarantulas are accustom to temperature drops over night and seasonally so small variants during winter months do not impact your tarantula. If the enclosure is in a room that you feel is too cold, look into a method of heating the entire room versus trying to heat individual enclosures. A good option to achieve this is a ceramic heater.
Heat mats & heat lamps are dangerous for tarantulas as the tarantula is incapable of feeling a burn start. Tarantulas seem to gravitate towards heat and because of this end up sitting directly on or too close to any heat source. There have been many instances of tarantulas burning their abdomens or dying from sitting directly on or too close to heating fixtures. The direct heat also risks drying the tarantula out and this can cause death as well.

Say No to individual enclosure heat sources.

Substrate: 6"-8" of dry substrate for adults. Lightly dampened for slings. Coco fiber mixed with clay works amazing for borrowers but cocofiber alone is often used.
Decorations: Offering a hide (cork hide, curved, stuck diagnially into the ground so wider mouth portion is opening, with access to substrate underneath it). This species will continue this starter burrow and create their own hidey hole under the starter hide or they may sit next to it and never venture in. Fake plants are always a plus as they make any enclosure look pleasant and natural. Rose hairs have been know to try to redecorate their fake plants or simply shred them. Some people even offer their terrestrial tarantulas bouncy balls that they will push around or chase. Mine chose to wack the ball over and over. Then stuck it in her hide so it would stop touching her while she sat busy doing nothing. Depends on the tarantula!
Try to avoid any decoration that can shift or fall on top of your tarantula. Be aware of any decorations that have sharp angles or points as a tarantula may risk falling and splitting their abdomen on such surfaces. Always consider that a tarantula will often opt to molt inside it's burrow or hide. A decoration with a hide portion needs to be large enough for your tarantula to molt in without getting stuck mid molt. While aquarium decorations may appear as a clevecool choice, always verify the inner portion is double the size (if not larger) than your tarantula to allow for molting. Remove any hides or decorations your tatantula may have outgrown. You can always fill empty spaces with aquarium safe acrylic, packed clay, and return (once dry) if it's a decoration you enjoy.
Watering: Water bowl kept full & clean at all times.
Do not use water crystals or sponges!
Feeders: Do NOT give your tarantula wild caught feeders. Exposure to pesticides and parasites can kill your tarantula. Be sure to advise anyone else with access to never just toss in a wild caught bug.
The type of feeders you use often depend largely on what feeder sources are available locally. Amazon and several websites will ship feeders and can be ordered in larger quantities or ordered as colony/breeding starters. Most tarantulas will eat cockroaches (red runners, Dubai's, hissers and several other species), crickets, meal worms, horn worms, wax worms, and fruit flies for smaller slings. Evaluate the size of your tarantula when picking appropriate feeders and always offer feeders that are smaller than your tarantula if offering live ones. For larger tarantulas you can offer multiple feeders at once if larger options are unavailable.
Always remove any feeders that have not been eaten after 24 hours. A "harmless" cricket can do massive damage to a newly molted or molting tarantula as they have no defense against them. Never let meal worms burrow and go unattended as they will burrow, pupate and emerge as Darkling beetles and again can do massive damage to your tarantula. They are ugly when they pupate too.
For most slings or smaller sub adults, you're better off cutting off the heads/smashing heads of feeders and placing it near the burrow entrance. Smaller tarantulas (growth wise, not including adult dwarfs) will scavenge freshly killed feeders. Doing this eliminated any chance of your sling becoming your feeders meal. Look locally, craigslist and pet stores, to see what feeders your are has readily available.
Tarantulas are opportunistic feeders. Most are not too picky over the type of feeder but some tarantulas are just picky. See what works best for your tarantula and be aware that some will get quite fat if allowed the opportunity to constantly eat. If you see their abdomen get more than 2x the size of their carapace then you should skip a feeding or two and consider doubling the time between feedings.
Some tarantulas stop eating months before they molt. Don't panic, nothing is wrong. They will eat again but it may also require several months after the molt to see them react to food.
Ventilation: Top ventilation is good for all species. This species is not one that requires humidity of any level in their enclosure so cross ventilation is not as vital, but not harmful either, as some other species.
Vent material: Mesh lids (as seen on Zilla enclosure lids) can be problematic for tarantulas as their toe nails get caught in the mesh. G. Rosea/Porteri is known to climb around their enclosure and the mesh creates a huge risk of toe nails getting stuck. This typically results in a tarantulas choice to detach a limb in order to free itself from the mesh. Terrestrial tarantulas tend to be heavier than their arboreal counterparts. They also don't climb on glass and avrylic as well as. This means once stuck, they have a harder time gaining the needed traction to climb up and undo their toe nails. Many arboreal keepers will advise you they have mesh lids and have never had issues as these tarantulas seem better equipped to free themselves.
For your Rose Hair, this is not the case. If forced to use mesh on the enclosure lid, ensure substrate is close enough to the top that the tarantula can place two legs on it, and still place the others on the ground.
If you purchase this type of enclosure, you can easily replace the mesh with acrylic. To view this process, check this video out.
Molting: All tarantulas molt. Molting is the process of removing an old exoskeleton and emerging larger. Tarantulas flip onto their backs, sometimes sides or even do so upright (whatever position they are in it's best to not interrupt them), in order to accomplish this. A tarantula on it's back, side or laying flat upright, is not a dead tarantula. Tarantulas do a death curl, when they've truly passed and this can be seen here. When in doubt, leave your tarantula alone and wait. Molting can take upwards of 24-48 hours, depending on the size of the tarantula, and your job during this time is to leave it alone! Stress, being startled, or being picked up can result in a failed molt that can result in the tarantula being disfigured or dying.
As molting time draws closer.you may spot a dark area on the abdomen or a bald spot. This is totally normal. If you have a tarantula that has rece lty molted and you notice a bald spot appearing this may be due to stress. Take a look at the enclosure, noises/vibrations in the room, and consider if any of these factors may be stressing your Tarantula out. Some tarantulas just use their hairs more than others but it's always good to consider out-of-enclosure factors that may stress them. Example: The enclosure should not be placed on a loud speaker
Never mist a newly molted tarantula. It defeats the purpose of drying their new exoskeleton out. Seriously, leave them alone.
Tarantulas finish a molt by removing their exoskeleton but the process isn't finished. To fit into the old exoskeleton the new one is soft. Once out, the tarantula is soft for upwards of a week to two weeks, depending on size of tarantula, and should be left alone during this time. Tarantulas that are newly molted will have white fangs. Opposed to the normal black fangs. This is a clear indication your tarantula has not yet fully hardened. Even after the fangs darken, it's best to wait to attempt a feed. A week to two weeks is not an uncommon length of time for a tarantula to harden.
Always offer clean water for your tarantula. This is very important for before and after the molting process. As tarantulas don't schedule their molts and often surprise us, always offering fresh water will ensure this is never an issue.
For more information on molting, check these links out here:
Why you never leave feeder insects in with a tarantula
Video of a molting tarantula
Tom Moran's Molting Guide
Information on Failed Molt
More good Tarantula information for beginners:
Top Ten Mistakes
Head to tarantulas for any questions or to share photos your new tarantula!
submitted by rhabidosa_rabida to TarantulaHobbyist [link] [comments]

[N levels] DPP, PFP, or Sec 5 ?

Since 2012, the Polytechnic Foundation Program (PFP) and Direct-Entry-Scheme to Polytechnic Program (DPP) [in the past only 'O' level students were offered this choice] were introduced as "through-train" programs for the Secondary 4 Normal Academic students. What I'm going say below are just some advices.
Every year people will get torn apart on which pathway to choose. Let's get one thing straight: To me, ANY of this pathway is good. Yes, I mean it. Each of these pathways has its own set of pros and cons so you have to be really sure of what's going to happen next.
PFP - To me, this will be the best choice if you want to eventually enroll in a polytechnic. This is because it's almost a guarantee you'll get to Year 1 (provided you don't slack off during Year 0, skip classes etc). However, the course that you choose/accept should be something you WANT to study (or that it'll benefit you in the future). I'm not sure if you're able to transfer after Year 0, but it is recommended that you stay in the course you're currently studying in but based on the website it is a case-to-case basis. The PFP sets aside a total of 1,500 places in all 5 local polytechnics. PFP's application period is usually after the release of the GCE 'O' Level Results.
Do not feel discouraged that due to the lack of an 'O' Level certificate, you will not be able to enroll into a local university. That's not true.
HOWEVER, as you lack an 'O' Level certificate, you cannot fail in Polytechnic because you have nothing to fall back on and in Singapore, the 'N' Level certificate is not recognized.
I've also been told that your performance in PFP will be the substitute for your 'O' level certificate. As much as the bare minimum is to just pass all the modules and progress to Year 1, it'll be really more advantageous if you put in effort and score as high as possible so if you're considering to enter a Local University, it may put you at a better spot.
Many has stated that the PFP gives a unique experience to PFP students as compared to those that only enroll after their 'O' Levels. It also gives you a much better foundation and you will probably be used to the Polytechnic curriculum by the end of Year 0.
Do take note that some PFP courses in which the teachers will not tell you about, they'll be teaching you some O level stuff. It's equivalent to a certain percentage of what the sec 5 is doing. Like for example o level physics, maths, English, if you're taking an engineering course and etc. So this is definitely NOT an easy alternative to sec 5. Do not expect flowers and fairy-tale to pop up.
Only consider this pathway if you SURE SURE you know, what you want to do in the future. Don't just pick it because "aiya dpp sec 5 ew pfp easier".
CAUTION: Please do NOT screw up your 5 choices (you're advised to choose wisely) OR accept a course that you don't even intend to study. You'll regret really badly afterwards and there are already many cases of that happening. You can choose to appeal to up to a maximum of 3 choices if you don't get the course that you wanted.
If your points are very high, it's recommended that you choose courses of your interest and that you have a good chance of getting in. (Unless you're willing to take the risk).
Should you get a course that is not what you desire, I would suggest that you choose other pathways (DPP or Sec 5) unless you're sure you may perhaps get interested after trying out the course. OR you could try to change your course by approaching your Polytechnic (however, you have to take note that you need to be the Top few to be able to change. It's kind of a risk in my opinion).
NOTE: Different Polytechnics offer different courses. Go to the specific polytechnic's website and browse through on what they offer under PFP. To be eligible for PFP, you must get a raw score of 12 points and/or below. With at least a B3 in English for courses under Group 1 (usually Science/Technology related) or an A2 for courses under Group 2 (Business/Humanities/Media related). You're only able to deduct bonus CCA points during the posting of courses (which that will be your net score).
Raw score = Score for N levels without having to minus bonus CCA points
PFP website: https://pfp.polytechnic.edu.sg/PFP/pfp_introduction.html
^ What you need to know is mostly there, or else consult a teachecounselor or the various polytechnics to clear your doubts. Do remember to go for the Open House as well.
DPP - Choose this pathway if you neither want to continue with Sec 5 as you're afraid you may not do as well for 'O' Levels or if you're not given a course that you want for PFP. This will enroll you into a Higher Nitec course in the Institute of Technical Education (ITE). You will have to first attend a 10 week preparatory course (or roughly about 3 months) before starting on your Higher Nitec course in April.
Application Phase: You can start to apply for DPP immediately after the release of the GCE 'N' Level Results in December or after the release of the GCE 'O' Level Results in January. Should you not get the course you want in December, you can choose to apply again in January.
Upon completing the program and achieving the minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) required, you'll enroll into a local Polytechnic either in Year 1 or Year 2. Please note that NOT all courses allow you to enter straight into Year 2. Refer to the booklet that you've been given for more information. As much as they say that a minimum GPA of 2.5/3.0 is required, having at least a GPA of 3.5 should guarantee you the course that you want especially if you're applying for courses that are more popular. DPP sets aside about a total of 1,000 places every year and it's offered in all 3 ITEs.
Do take note that some DPP courses in which the teachers will not tell you about, they'll be teaching you some O level stuff. It's equivalent to a certain percentage of what the sec 5 is doing. Like for example o level physics, maths, English, if you're taking an engineering course and etc. So this is definitely NOT an easy alternative to sec 5. Do not expect flowers and fairy-tale to pop up.
Please do not feel discouraged that ITE is a bad place, or all those that goes to ITE do not study. That's absolutely NOT true. Search up on Google, there are many success stories and each year ITE is becoming better and better. Just because you took a longer route, does not mean you're a failure. Sometimes we may need more time, but it does not matter as long as we achieve what we want to achieve at the end.
NOTE: To be eligible for DPP, you have to get 19 points and/or below. For Applied Sciences, Engineering or Info-Communication Technology courses, your English has to be at least a B4. For Business & Services related courses, your English has to be at least a B3. Different ITEs offer different courses under the DPP. You are to submit up to a total of 12 choices of the different courses/ITE you wish to enter.
DPP FAQ: https://www.ite.edu.sg/wps/wcm/connect/def999804c75cc6e9f17bf5b11ba44f7/JIEH_WebFAQ_2016.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
Sec 5 - Choose this pathway if you want to go to a Junior College (JC) OR you're sure that you can do well enough for 'O' Levels OR the course that you want is not offered under PFP/You didn't get the course you desire. When you go to Sec 5, it is true that you'll definitely drop a few grades in some subjects (but it is not true that it'll definitely happen to ALL your subjects) and you MUST have the determination, motivation and discipline to do well. You have to know that you're now competing with even more people - even those from top schools. The grade standardization may not always be in your favour and you're now graded on the same grade standardization as the 4Es (unless there's a difference in syllabus). There's roughly more than 30,000 students per year taking 'O' Levels but for 'N' Levels it's roughly 11,500 and/or above.
You must not slack off at any point, but of course you should give yourself a break if you need it so that you don't burn out and completely give up halfway. You must NOT have the mindset that you can study a few weeks before or do last minute preparations for 'O' Levels because do remember, this is not 'N' Levels. Comparing both of these examinations, 'N' Level is considered a breeze. Not only that, the markers are definitely more stringent when it comes to marking your 'O' Level scripts. There is definitely a significant gap between these 2 examinations so you have to catch up on more contents in less than a year.
Do remember that it is fine if you're an average student, failing some subjects or see a down fall in your grades for a while. Slowly but surely, rise yourself back up and fight for higher grades. You'll be proud of what you've accomplished at the end of the year, going through the pain and such intensity of coping with this "huge jump" revision.
Even I am a sec 5 student myself and I can tell you that, it will not be "difficult" if you choose not to make it sound difficult. Have a proper mindset and stay focused. Do not let anyone make you "nonono sec 5 aiyoyo die la". Teachers are sometimes a POS for instilling in NA students' mind that sec 5 is hard, don't go, you'll die, you'll suffer and etc. Part of the reason why they're doing this because they can focus more on the 4EX instead of sec 5 and by doing this, they won't have to waste so much more resources.
The only "jump" I can see is maths and English. Hop onto this link to see more on how to properly cope and manage. Link: Sec 5 AMA Spoiler: everybody can do it, is just whether they choose to do it or not.
The sad truth your teachers didn't tell you about NA levels pathway
"Honestly, the hard thing about Sec 5 is not about the syllabus, its more about one’s emotional needs. Going through one more year of secondary school really feels like hell, especially when you see your PFP friends enjoying their orientation camps, and your express friends moving on to tertiary schools, and it feels like you are retaining and shit. Can’t speak for all, but that was me this year, was slightly depressed for a good 2-3 months, but i moved on as exams were coming and everyone was busy mugging. Soon after, most of us learn to move on and see the bright light of it, plus most of my PFP friends said that PFP isn’t that chill and all , its basically the same as Sec 5 in another environment + more toxic friends." - stanexoandnct
Starting in sec 5 will be hard as you'll have to take your time and get used to the new surroundings because your friends left the school. The only one which you'll have to rely on for school stuff like studying or during recess is your classmates because you know them well than the others. Just as long as your class has a balance between fun and serious, I'll guarantee you that the class will do well for O levels. High risk = high reward.
This is the case for me as my classmates will get serious if situation asks for it, and pretty much make clown jokes like a whole goddamn circus just to enlighten our mood up. We made our teachers fell in love with us and they said that they'll miss us dearly because our class is extraordinary. So yes, try to make the class a bit memorable.
Controlling my sleep routine is hard and adapting to new changes because I did not study shit for June holidays, only then after prelims I did but there were certain takeaways such as 4-5 hours of sleep and etc. It was worth it and black coffee(no sugar no nothing) helped a lot.
Finding your own study area where you can study effectively without any disturbance is honestly, you just should have. I did not properly organize my study area, which is why I do not want to properly study before and during the June holidays. Home is your best bet. Not Starbucks, library or wherever else. That's the place where you do almost everything; sleeping, eating, lying down..
In the end, it's your decision, your dreams, your hopes, your ambitions to do what you feel you need to do at the end of the day. Listen to your gut feelings, and listen to your instincts. They may be correct about which pathway you should be going and what you need to do.
To choose this pathway, you have to be absolutely sure you'll do well because if your points are very high, you'll be less likely to be able to apply/enter a course that you want (even more so if it's a popular course). You have to make sure that you'll do well in English and Maths because both of these subjects has caused many students to not be able to enter Polytechnic because they got more than a D7 (getting a D7 would have already limited the number of courses you can choose).
NOTE: To be eligible for Sec 5, you have to get at least 19 and/or below, with at least a C5 in both English and Mathematics.
Sec 5 FAQ: Consult your teachers or counsellors.
P.S. All these are just my 2 cents worth so you have the right to agree or disagree with what I've said above. If you have even more advices or questions (you can choose to PM me too), do comment below. Go for whichever pathway you want, just be sure that you're being realistic (unless you're willing to take risks) and I hope you get to where you want to be!
If you're wondering why I've only highlighted on English for most of the eligibility criteria, it's because it's the subject where many people couldn't meet the requirement.
Most texts are from KimHyolyn, so credits.
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A Beginner's Guide to Pants

A Beginner's Guide to Pants
Pants are everywhere and yet misunderstood. They are seen as an obstacle to comfort and nuisance to care. And if anyone looks or feels ridiculous, the blame is going to be directed at poorly fitting pants.
But as much as pants are difficult to wear or maintain, they are the foundation for our appearance. If you want to look smart or thinner, a good pair of pants goes a long way. And if you want to save money on clothes, a good pair of paints is key to building multiple outfits without seeming like you’re wearing the same one. They blend your shoes to the rest of your body and the frame your shirt and jacket.
A great pair of pants balances one’s appearance and makes each individual piece appear better fitting. A poor pair of pants does the opposite and makes each appear worse.
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But how does one look for pants? There are thousands of brands, multiple fits or styles within each brand, and multiple colors available for each of those. Unfortunately, I have no easy answer to this. But I do believe knowledge of and understanding pants is the first step to being able to make better decisions in buying and wearing pants. With that said, I’ll start from the most basic concepts.
The purpose of your pants is perhaps the best and easier way to start narrowing down what you want to buy and to streamline decision making. The overwhelming reason I hear for buying pants is for work (business casual).
Once upon a time, every man was expected to wear a suit: at work, on the weekend, on vacation, anywhere. It was the default attire of everyday life. More formal occasions required more formal wear: black tie (tuxedo), white tie, and a few other special occasion outfits. These special occasion outfits, decades prior, were the suits of their day. And in their day, the suit was the informal attire one might find outdoors in the country.

https://preview.redd.it/wjjbjtfkhh931.jpg?width=2066&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=03bceb261085597d7f927229a532d581bef3b467
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https://preview.redd.it/yh5krmfkhh931.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f588617f7b3884e30fb3ef00e260345ce84e845d
https://preview.redd.it/qifk3nfkhh931.jpg?width=1023&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=89dac96945121f39e6ba0ba657f0a211abc125ba
What situations are formal and informal and what is expected has changed with time. These days, the suit is maybe the most formal outfit anyone will own. And the suit for many jobs is no longer required. So please keep in mind that there are no “rules” that are always true. Literally every assumption or constant of dress has changed over time and place. These are more as guidelines that help with decision making. While understanding guidelines and purpose is more complex than “if X, always wear Y”, I think it helps to provide additional knowledge should your conditions be slightly different. On the plus side, given that this is a post about pants only, we’ll save time by not covering other items.

Work (Business Casual) Pants

Looking for clothes by color and fabric is the quickest way to pare down your options. So for those of you looking for the simple answer: gray wool.
Now if you need pants for work (and yet do NOT require a suit), I think gray is the most conservative and flexible choice of all colors as they pair well with practically all shirt, jacket, shoe, and skin colors. And don’t think that the color palette limits you at all; wool comes in tens of weaves from flannel to twill and weights and from worsted to woolen. There are tens of choices of gray wools (from charcoal all the way to light gray) given the number of attribute combinations.
The next best option (given the tens of combinations, this might be more the nth+1 option) would be tan wool.
It is less conservative than gray (although if there is no expectation of wearing a suit it doesn’t matter) and requires checking if the shade in question works with your skin tone, but it offers more flexibility with other color shirts and socks meaning it’ll probably also be more suitable for wear outside work as well.
Now you might be wondering how I feel about navy blue or black. Again, since we’re not talking about suits I would avoid both. The reason is that both colors are severe and inflexible to wear properly without the matching jacket (without which the outfit appears half finished because of the light colored tops) and they are difficult to pair. Both only pair with black shoes and dark socks, unlike gray and tan which pair much more easily with other colors. And while I am completely aware navy blue pants and/or suits are being worn with brown shoes these days, the colors often clash do not seem to mesh.
The dissonance in color draws too much focus towards the shoes, which in turn draws attention away from where you want it (up, towards the face). I would avoid it considering you can probably find 1000 better and easier to wear combinations (if we’re including shoes, socks, shirts, and jackets) with gray and tan wool pants than with navy and black. I cannot highlight enough the flexibility of grays and tans – even in the most casual workplace these will work. But wear black or navy in an office with bright green polos, jeans, and floral dresses, and you will feel out of place.
Now why wool? The simple answer is that wool exudes professionalism, efficiency, cleanliness, and simplicity. Cotton creases and wrinkles and flops and shows its wear and tear. It’s fine for the outdoors, but inside a modern office it doesn’t look nearly as proper as wool. Wool pants will also appear ironed and pressed as long as it’s been stored properly, folded or hung along the crease. In comparison, cotton pants need to be ironed prior to use like shirts (and after a few minutes they start losing their shape).
But please avoid wrinkly wools! I like to squeeze and bunch up the fabric, and if it doesn’t spring back to shape without creases AVOID IT. These are the wools that give the appearance of a cheap, wrinkled uniform and create the same issues as cotton.
Worsted or woolen? You might find certain wools will have one of the two descriptors in their name. The names describe how the wool was woven into fabric, and the simple explanation is that worsted will appear to have a smoother texture and woolen a bit of a brushed or fluffy texture. As we’re talking about stand alone pants, I’d lean towards woolen in grays and either for tan. The reason is that a very smooth, shiny pair of gray pants may appear to be part of a suit (depending on the weave) and may look out of place without the jacket (similar to the issue of navy and black pants).

Casual Pants

If you read the brief history of suits earlier, it might have occurred to you that wearing work pants sans coat is quite informal in the context of the past 100 or so years. And I would absolutely agree. And for that reason, I personally have a lot of overlap between my work and casual pants that they are essentially the same. By avoiding shiny worsteds and severe colors for work, they are just as flexible outside work.
Therefore, I find your dress outside work is your chance to express yourself! And as a guide, I’d like to cover the basics (the minutiae once you delve beneath the basics will be for another time) of fabric and colors.

Fabrics

I’ll quickly summarize the 3 main fabrics available: cotton, wool, and polyester. Again there are more, but I suspect 95% of people will wear one of the above 3.
Depending on the retailer, they might not say much more than the fabric content above. If that’s your price range, then the general differences between the three would be that:
  • wool cannot be machine washed but will retain its shape,
  • cotton can be machine washed but will easily wrinkle and lose its shape, and
  • polyester (imitating wool) can be machine washed and keep its shape and avoid wrinkles, but is likely going to wear hot and feel synthetic.
Now some retailers will have additional descriptors often describing a combination of characteristics, not just the fabric and/or weave. Rather than categorize all of them, I’ll quickly cover a few of the most common ones (with links to a photo).
  • Denim: the vast majority of jeans are made from blue cotton denim fabric. It has alternating blue and white diagonal ribs that provide a distinctive look. It wears hard, but will lose shape over time and can leave fade marks.
  • Khakis/Chinos: probably your most common cotton pants descriptor (as jeans are often separated into a separate category). They are similar to denim in that they often have diagonal ribs, but come in a variety of colors, will appear solid (as opposed to the alternating colors in denim) and are generally finer in both weight and weave (notice how the diagonal lines on denim are usually more prominent than the ones on these). They usually don’t wear as hard as denim, but also tend to lose shape over time and can leave fade marks.
  • Corduroy: fabric traditionally associated with the English countryside and can come in multiple fabrics, although most commonly made from cotton. The fabric is made so there are sets of vertical ‘ridges’ called wales. Different fabrics with have different width of wales. I would avoid low wale counts as they appear very prominent and can look costume-like (as they will appear velvet like).
  • Tropical Wool: a very common wool fabric, marketed I suspect because many consumers wear mostly cotton and believe wool is heavy and wears too hot. However, I disagree and find wool for the most part is very comfortable. Nevertheless, tropical wool is very light wool and tends to be a shiny. Its levity it can make it appear flimsy and wrinkled and its shine makes it appear as part of a suit. That is not to say all tropical wools are so, but I find it easier to avoid them altogether.
  • Flannel: soft, casual, and slightly mottled wool fabric. The fabric is usually quite airy so I’ve found it quite good for most weather. Often has a nice textured appearance which works well with conservative colors. One issue is that despite being made of wool, I find the crease on flannel becomes very faint over wear compared to other fabrics so it loses its shape relatively more than most wool fabrics.
  • Twill: this is a common weave that encompasses denim, khaki/chino, gabardine, and more. However, I’d like to point out wool can be woven in twill as well. Cavalry twill in particular is like the denim of wools. It can have similar alternating colors in the ribs, has heft, wears hard and maintains its shape very well.
Again these are not the only types of cotton and wool pants. They are the most common ones I’ve seen. But perhaps equally important for selecting pants is the weight of the fabric (which might be more difficult to know if not listed). Again, I personally avoid very light (9 oz or less) fabrics as they tend to wrinkle and look thin. And I’ve found as I’ve purchased nicer fabrics, ‘breathability’ of fabrics is no longer much of an issue as even medium weight fabrics are fine in moderate summer temperatures (~80 degrees Fahrenheit here).
One factor in how cool or hot the pants may wear is the lining. Almost zero cotton pants will have lining, but you may find it occasionally on wool pants. They prevent your bare skin from touching the front of the pants and can extend all the way down to the leg opening. The lining is often makes the pants wear hotter. To me, they're a bit uncomfortable and really on necessary on very scratchy wool fabric (and the vast majority of wool is not scratchy).

Colors

You probably don’t feel colors are a limiting factor. But with all the choices available, you might want to consider it to ease your decision making.
Again, the most versatile colors I find are shades of gray and tan here as well (I actually like wearing the same pairs for work and pleasure because they are so flexible). Jeans, which practically match with anything very casual these days and white or off white colors, while tough to pull off but great when done correctly, are tied for my distant third option.
Again, darker colors such as blue and black I would avoid as they’re just less versatile. However, it’s possible there are a few nicely textured or non-solid navy or black fabrics out there that make the them easier to pair.
Now what about unusual colors, such as red, purple, yellow, and practically anything other than what I listed above? Do it if that’s your personality! But to me, these colors are also less versatile, working with fewer combinations of colors and textures. And they stick out. And if they don’t fit you right, you will receive a lot of attention for maybe less than flattering reasons. Which is a great segue to our next topic.

Fit

Perhaps the most difficult part of findings pants is the fit. This is something that can’t necessarily be seen through images like fabric or color. And I cannot find any substitute to trying on the pants. Now that doesn’t mean you need a physical store; many online stores allow for returns which means you can try on clothes in the comfort of your home. But this doesn’t mean it’s easy, especially if you’re picky (and maybe you are if you are reading this article).
Unlike other goods, pants are not standardized across stores or brands. While something like specs of electronics can be compared across similar items (e.g. cameras), no such comparison can really be performed for the fit.

Sizing

While the same attributes may exist across brands, they are not necessarily comparable. Just because something is ‘regular fit’ in one brand does not make it comparable to a ‘regular fit’ in another brand. Same for waist sizes. A 34 in one brand may not fit similarly to a 34 in another brand. In fact, they might not even fit similarly in the same brand if the brand has many fits. Or they might even fit differently in the same fit for the same brand over time as the brand has changed the fit over time.
One way brands have tried to combat this is by posting measurements of their pants. This can include the width of key areas such as the waist, seat, thigh, and leg opening. While this is more useful than only providing the size, it can be difficult to truly compare pants from these measurements alone.

Measurements Alone Do NOT Describe Shape

Imagine two ellipses, one rotated 90 degrees from the other. Both have the same circumference, but appear to be completely different shapes. For that reason, the circumference of measurements alone may not illustrate how the pants fit because it does not describe the shape of the intended wearer.
Now all the above measurements are only horizontal measurements. One of the most crucial aspects of pants is the rise, or the vertical length of the pants above the crotch. (Confusingly, the rise is measured in 2 different methods: a tailor will measure the true rise as the vertical length of the rise and less technical folks, often those writing clothing measurements, often measure the rise as the total length. These mean different things and yet are sometimes not distinguished on measurement charts.) The rise provides only the length with complete disregard of the curvature. Imagine 2 different parabolic curves. They could have the same length of curve, but be two completely different curves!
The discussion of curves and lengths I have described above is all related to pattern making. Pattern making details how to cut the cloth that’s sewn together for your clothes. And it’s at that stage in the manufacturing process where the fit is already determined. Because each brand has its own patterns, each brand fits differently. Because clothes from different time periods have different patterns, clothes from different decades look different (outside the colors and patterns). Because people have different body shapes and sizes, a tailor will create different patterns for different people to achieve the same fit.
Now I won’t go into how this is all done because that’s another story. But because achieving a perfect fit is entirely dependent on the pattern used, there is little room to maneuver on the finished ready-to-wear product.
While alterations are certainly possible, most glaring issues cannot be fixed as most fixes require displacing cloth from one area and adding cloth in another. As ready-to-wear clothing often does not provide generous amounts of excess cloth at the seams, there is generally no extra cloth in the area that’s required for the alteration.

Therefore when you buy pants do not believe that a glaring issue can be resolved, despite what the salesman says. (I’m willing to bet most salesman do not know how pattern making or pattern changes work!) As a result, when you buy pants, what you see is going to be very close to what you’re going to get, minus some common, easy alterations that are built into the construction of pants. These are:
  • Taking in or letting out the waist at the center back of the waistband and into the center back seat seam. This however is really only performed on pants with a split waistband (anything above the cheapest type of pants will usually have this).
  • Taking in or letting out (depends on how much excess the pants have) the legs.
Looking at the above, you may notice that the width of the waist and legs can be altered. But don’t be fooled. These alterations do not fix issues of balance (which is what the majority of true issues in ready-to-wear pants are). If the pants fit cleanly before, they will still fit cleanly after these changes. And if they didn’t fit cleanly before, they still won’t fit cleanly after these changes.
However, you may have noticed the seat is one alteration I have not listed. Because that is the most static area of any ready-to-wear pants, I would use that to help find your size for the brand and fit. For example, if the seat does not fit in a regular fit size 34, continue checking other sizes rather than give up on the fit and brand. If the seat on the new size fits (feels neither tight nor loose) and the rest of the pants don’t, then chances are the fit and brand will not work for you at all.
To summarize, try on the pants. Measurements can be very misleading in that pants with the same measurements can fit very differently.

Identify your desired attributes

But what are you looking for? This is where everyone has their own opinion.
I like clean lines that don’t attract attention downwards and keep eyes focused on the body as a whole.

I also like the waistband to sit a bit higher, close to the natural waist to ensure the torso doesn’t appear too long and appears natural and balanced, frame the waist, and to slim down any belly fat.

Are these attributes very particular? Yes. Will they be difficult to find on ready-to-wear pants? Yes. Having a vision and trying to find it in already finished products is like finding a needle in a haystack. And that vision or fit is important, because it expresses you. I can guarantee that if you don’t like what you’re wearing, you won’t wear it. Maybe not in the 1st week or 1st month. But definitely at some point it will be lingering on your shelf unworn because you don’t enjoy wearing it. So there’s no need to be buying things just because everyone else is buying that.
This is the downside of ready-to-wear; if you have a particular vision, you need to find that particular brand or fit that has the same vision. This means a lot of digging on websites and other media and trying on clothes to find what you want.
For this reason if you stick with ready-to-wear, I would be open minded about some details that normally hold people up from making purchases but have zero effect on the fit or shape of pants (e.g. brands, fit names, sometimes even pleats as you might have a shape that ready-to-wear retailers mostly cut for using pleats).
There is no simple answer for this. There’s hundreds of different pants out there and it would be amiss for me to create a single formula for everyone. Think about this positively; there are a bunch of ideas designers have already put out there on pants just waiting for someone like you to try!
Imagine never trying new foods or visiting new places or meeting new people. Ridiculous, right? Trying clothes can be the same experience! It can be fun trying something different. And best of all, most of places allow free returns. So why not?
That being said, it would mean you have to making shopping for clothes not a chore to do just when you have a new event coming up with that burden of a deadline. That pressure of doing something for someone else can put a damper on even the most fun tasks. Try shopping when there’s no pressure to have new clothes. Because if you’re shopping for clothes, it should be for you.
Because that’s the wonderful thing about pants. You’ll always have them everywhere you go. And rather than a nuisance, it should be a pleasure knowing you have something that you want.
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[OC] Lost Leagues: History of the Professional Spring Football League (1992)

Competing football leagues in the offseason is all the rage right now. The Alliance of American Football started up this year, and promptly ended this year without even finishing its first season. And, the XFL is starting up again in 2020 (it’s almost impossible for the league to be as big of a failure as it was in 2001, when it flamed out in a blaze of glory).
Here’s the thing with other football leagues- I love getting my football fix at all times of the year. I was glued to my TV during AAF season, and watched practically every Orlando Apollos game. And when then XFL starts again in 2020, you can bet that I’ll be watching with a keen eye. There’s big names attached to the XFL, there’s financial backing, there’s a TV contract that is nothing short of impressive (half the games on network TV), and the rule changes look interesting.
But here’s the thing with other football leagues- 99 percent of them don’t work. In terms of outdoor professional football leagues in the United States, the only two outside of the NFL that worked were the AFL and the AAFC; they don’t exist anymore because they combined with the NFL. It’s extremely hard to get a pro football league up and running and give it any kind of success. There’s tons of leagues that have fallen by the wayside.
Case in point- the Professional Spring Football League.
Now seems like as good of a time as ever to revive the Lost Leagues series, where I take a look at failed professional football leagues. Some leagues, such as the United Football League post that kicked off the series two years ago, you may recognize. Others, like this one, you’ve probably never heard of. In fact, this league made such little of an impact that if you do a Google search for “Professional Spring Football League”, every link on the first page of results has absolutely nothing to do with the PSFL that I’m talking about.
With all of that said, let’s take a look at the incredibly short-lived existence of the Professional Spring Football League.
Part I: A Puzzling Formation
The league announced its existence on October 1, 1991, less than a year before the league was set to play in 1992. Already, you might be able to spot a major problem with this. There was already a pro football league in the spring in 1991, and that was the World League of American Football. That league had a lot of things that the PSFL would not wind up getting. For starters, it had the backing of the NFL. The league owners wanted to create a developmental football league in the spring that would also give the sport popularity overseas. The WLAF also had a television contract; not only were games shown on ABC and USA Network, but those networks actually paid the WLAF for the TV rights.
There were so many failed spring football leagues, and now, the PSFL was going to directly compete against a spring football league that actually had the backing of the NFL. Let’s put that in perspective. Professional hockey in Atlanta has not worked. The Atlanta Flames moved to Calgary in part because of low attendance, and the Atlanta Thrashers moved to Winnipeg in part because of low attendance. Imagine if the NHL decided, for whatever reason, to go back to Atlanta. Now imagine that after this announcement is made, a competing hockey league (and I use competing very loosely) announces that they’re going to be putting a team in Atlanta, and the season is going to run at the same time as the NHL. Why would that make any sense for the competing hockey league to do? Already, the league was behind.
But let’s take a look at that other pro league that was playing in the spring, and is still somewhat remembered to this day. The WLAF, in its inaugural season, averaged 25,361 fans per game. On its surface, that’s really good. However, if you take out the three European teams (London Monarchs, Frankfurt Galaxy, Barcelona Dragons) and the one Canadian team (Montreal Machine), you’re left with six American teams. Here’s the average attendance of those American teams:
Team Average Attendance
New York/New Jersey Knights 32,322
Birmingham Fire 25,442
Orlando Thunder 19,018
Sacramento Surge 17,994
San Antonio Riders 14,853
Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks 12,753
AVERAGE 20,397
Why do I bring this up? Let’s be very clear- an average attendance of 20,397 for a football league’s inaugural season is still extremely good… but only two of the six teams cleared 20,000. Remember that this was the league with the NFL’s backing and a relatively lucrative TV contract (it was in the eight figure range according to some reports). In the PSFL, a league with neither the league’s backing nor any TV contract to speak of, they needed each team to average 20,000 fans per game to stay afloat. Per the article:
[President] Vince Sette and the other league organizers figure each team will need to average just 20,000 fans per game to make this endeavor work. And they're not counting on television revenue to bail them out.
Each team needs to average just 20,000 fans per game? That’s all it’s going to take? A number that four out of six teams in the WLAF couldn’t reach? A number that, in the final season of the USFL, 8 out of the league’s 14 teams couldn’t reach? That seems like a fantastic business model that can’t possibly fail. You can probably already see some of the inevitable failures and red flags with this league just based off of the model.
But remember when I said that the PSFL did not have a TV contract? That doesn’t mean that they didn’t get some exposure on TV, in the form of an introduction video that aired on SportsChannel New York in 1991 (even though the league did not have any teams in New York). The video is… well, let’s just take a look at the video, because there’s a lot to dissect.
Part II: An Even More Puzzling Video
LINK TO THE VIDEO
I have no idea how I found this video, seeing as it has a grand total of 398 views on YouTube, two likes, and two comments. However, this is an absolute gold mine. This was a half-hour special aired on SportsChannel a few months prior to the launch of the league, and man, is it a weird video in all its early-90s cheese and glory. The first thing you’ll notice is that the commissioner of this league is Rex Lardner. About a quarter century later, he would try launching another pro football league in the spring. Considering the fact that the league has 195 likes on Facebook and the only video on the league’s website is literally five seconds long and is just a horribly-done Microsoft Word logo, I’m guessing that league is dead and that he learned nothing from the failures of this league.
After a shot of a logo that looks somewhat similar to the USFL logo, we get an introduction by a man who, literally less than one minute into the video, tries to stop skepticism of fans. In the first minute, they acknowledge that every other attempt has failed. That’s rather comforting. However, they explain why this league is different and won’t fail, and it’s because Vincent Sette (the founder and president of the league) said that he researched the other leagues. Checking in on what happened to Sette after the league’s demise, and it turns out that he’s doing great.
The founder of the league was also known Vincent Setteducate. There appear to have been no criminal charges filed in the aftermath of the PSFL. Five years later, he was charged by the SEC in a wire fraud case, and pleaded guilty, sentenced to five years probation and ordered to pay $300,000 in restitution in another business venture. He has had other brushes with the law as well.
And yes, according to this article, he goes by both names of Vincent Sette and Vincent Setteducate. Getting back to the video, after he promises that the league is going to work because he researched at the New York Public Library, you’ll also notice that Walt Michaels is the Director of Football Operations. I’ll give the league credit for that- Michaels is a recognizable name; in six seasons with the Jets and two seasons with the New Jersey Generals of the USFL, he’s made the playoffs four times, and only had a losing record twice. He even guided the Jets to the AFC Championship in the 1982 strike-shortened season. Unfortunately, that’s the only recognizable front office figure associated with this league. Not once in the video does it mention any coaches associated with the league. Considering the league was starting up in spring of 1992 (the first game seemed to be scheduled for February 29), and this TV special aired in late 1991, that seems like a major red flag. Again, just to reiterate- this league was announced on October 1, and the first game was to be played on February 29. People criticized the XFL the first time around for moving too quickly, but that was a year. This is less than five months. This is 151 days between announcement and the first game.
But how are the players in this league? Remember that the talent pool with any secondary football league is going to be somewhat worse; factor in the WLAF already existing in the spring, and the PSFL was playing third fiddle. They held three combines, with the one in the video taking place in Atlanta in October (less than a month after the creation of the league), and others taking place in December and January. Who were some of the players?
You know it’s a good sign when the first player that’s mentioned is Mickey Guidry. When the FIRST PLAYER YOU HIGHLIGHT is a man that threw 5 touchdowns and 5 interceptions in his four years at LSU from 1985-88 and a man who was so buried on the depth chart with the Sacramento Surge of the WLAF that he didn’t even throw a pass in 1991, that’s a horrible sign. Other quarterbacks in this league included Tony Rice (who threw 2 touchdowns and 9 interceptions in his final season at Notre Dame in 1989, completed 48.5% of his passes over his career, and was dreadful with the Barcelona Dragons in the WLAF in 1991 with one touchdown pass and three interceptions), Bobby McAllister (an atrocious QB in the WLAF in 1991 with Raleigh-Durham, throwing 7 touchdowns and 11 interceptions on 5.9 yards per attempt, a 46.7% completion percentage, and a passer rating of 54; Raleigh-Durham went winless), and Todd Hammel (a 12th round pick in 1990 who never played a snap, and then played in the WLAF with New York/New Jersey where he threw 2 touchdowns and 3 interceptions, had a passer rating of 53.7, completed just 45.5% of his passes, and averaged 5.8 yards per attempt). Remember- these were the guys they were highlighting, so this was their cream of the crop. Guys who were awful in the WLAF were, on paper, the best quarterbacks in this league.
As for the other offensive skill players, there were some recognizable names, even if they weren’t that good. Timmy Smith ran for a record-204 yards for Washington in Super Bowl XXII; he only had three regular season rushing touchdowns in his NFL career, and from 1989-91 (the three years before the PSFL’s scheduled inaugural season in 1992), had 6 rushing yards, but at least the name was recognizable. The second halfback mentioned is James Gray; while he was exceptional at Texas Tech, leading the Southwest Conference in 1989 with 1,509 rushing yards and 18 rushing touchdowns, he never played a down in the NFL after getting drafted by the Patriots in round five of the 1990 NFL Draft. Lydell Carr had a solid career with Oklahoma, but after getting drafted in the fourth round of the 1988 NFL Draft, did nothing in the NFL, never recording a single yard from scrimmage (in fairness, he did score eight touchdowns with the Barcelona Dragons in the 1991 season of the WLAF). And then, there was Lorenzo Hampton, who scored 28 touchdowns in his NFL career. Those were the four halfbacks highlighted; two of them never got a carry in the NFL. Quality-wise, that’s not good. Also, you may notice that half of this video is just the PSFL Combine and almost plays like a football instructional video; I’m not sure why this is.
Another major red flag with this video comes with the announcement of the teams. We’ll get to the teams later, but the map only shows nine cities, even though there’s supposed to be 10 teams in the league. That means that a new team would have to be announced and formed with roughly 70 days to go until the first game of the season. Good luck with that.
But how is this league going to be any different from the other leagues? After an interview with former BYU tight end Chris Smith that, no joke, starts off with the line, “I love children,” we find out how. For one, the players are going to do community service. There’s going to be autograph sessions. I’m failing to see how this is any different, but then we get two weird things. The first is that the games are going to be when the fans want. They’re scheduling for the fans. I have no idea what this even means. Does this mean that if the fans want them to play a game right now, that they’ll do it? The second is a cool idea but has no practicality whatsoever, and that is the universal ticket. Any fan who buys a season ticket to a PSFL team gets all of their team’s home games plus a universal ticket that can be used at any PSFL game. Good idea… but who’s flying halfway across the country to watch a PSFL game? Sette brings up the idea of staying at a hotel in Tampa for a PSFL game… who’s going to do that? It’s an interesting idea, but one that I’m sure nobody would actually use.
Some frequently asked questions about the league pop up next, and it’s always a good sign when one of the questions is whether or not a franchise can go under. The PSFL actually had a good idea with a single-entity structure; MLS has a similar system and it has worked well in ensuring the league’s survival. But here’s where it gets somewhat eyebrow-raising for me- each team has a salary cap of $2 million, and an average player salary of $45,000. Adjusting for inflation, today, the average player salary is around $82,000. That’s a pretty large amount for a minor football league. For some perspective, even the AAF’s average salary was less than that at $75,000 per season. And even though the AAF didn’t work, it had a TV contract and actual investors. This league was formed in the blink of an eye, had no TV revenue, had a business model that relied on a rather unattainable goal of 20,000 fans at every game, and yet, had a higher average salary per season when adjusted for inflation than the AAF.
After watching that video, it’s time to break down the actual markets chosen.
Part III: The Teams
The PSFL was pretty ambitious with their inaugural season, opting to have 10 teams play in the league. Four of the teams would be located in cities with NFL teams, with the other six teams being in unoccupied professional football markets. The New England Blitz seemed like an odd choice for a team. While the league stressed going into unoccupied markets, Boston already had a team in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL, so this completely defeats the purpose. Additionally, the Boston Breakers were in the USFL in 1983, and drew the smallest average attendance in the league at 12,735 fans per game. Why Boston was chosen for a team, I’m not sure. The other baffling location was the Washington Marauders at RFK Stadium; the Washington Federals of the USFL bombed horribly (second-to-last in attendance in 1983 and 1984, including an average of just 7,694 fans per game in 1984), and there was competition in the area with the Bullets of the NBA and the Capitals of the NHL.
However, every other city makes sense. I’ll give the PSFL credit- they seemed like they had a good idea of where to go with their teams. Going to Tampa Bay with the Tampa Bay Outlaws made complete sense- in the USFL, the Bandits consistently ranked near the top of the league in average attendance, proving that spring football in Tampa Bay could work (if it’s done correctly, the XFL team playing in Tampa Bay in 2020 could have a strong following, though it’ll be tougher now that the city has an NHL team and an MLB team). Miami didn’t have the Marlins yet or the Florida Panthers (although Sunrise is an hour away from Miami), so there was little competition in the area for a spring football team to thrive. The other six locations were teams without NFL teams. The Arkansas Miners played in Little Rock (no pro sports teams), the Carolina Cougars played in Columbia (no pro sports teams), the Nevada Aces played in Las Vegas (no pro sports teams), the New Mexico Rattlesnakes played in Albuquerque (no pro sports teams), the Oregon Lightning Bolts played in Portland (only the Trail Blazers as competition), and the Utah Pioneers played in Salt Lake City (no pro sports teams). Yes, travel costs were going to be high, but the market selection seemed promising with a bunch of mid-sized markets who were starving for pro sports.
The logos, though? My, are some of them bad.
A lot of these logos would’ve been outdated very quickly. I have no idea what the New England Blitz logo is trying to be. The Carolina Cougars logo looks like the logo from Monster Energy (though the Carolina logo predates the Monster logo). Nevada’s logo is just the Alcorn State logo with cards coming off of it. And then there’s the Utah Pioneers helmet, which is the exact same thing as the Cleveland Browns helmet minus a logo on it. Why the Miami Tribe were named what they were, I’m not sure, seeing as the actual Miami Tribe is based in Oklahoma.
They were already thinking about expansion. As mentioned in this article, they were looking at expanding to 12 teams in the near future, putting teams in Fresno and Austin; both were large cities with no pro sports team.
So, we’ve got our teams. We’ve got our video promoting the league (even though we don’t have a television contract). And, we’ve got a schedule culminating with the Red, White & Blue Bowl at RFK Stadium on July 5. How does the first season of the league go?
Part IV: Collapse & Conclusion
Already, cracks were starting to show in 1992. Businessman Nick Bunick bought the Portland team a month before the season started, and immediately wanted to change the name to the Oregon Chargers. I’m sure the NFL would’ve been thrilled by that. They just hired a coach a month before the season started by taking former NFL quarterback Craig Morton.
February rolled around, and it was less than a month before the start. And when February rolled around, I’ll let Squidward explain why the league was struggling.
In what can only be described as a shocked Pikachu face for a lot of these other leagues, they had no money. It was February 12, just 17 days before kickoff between the Tampa Bay Outlaws and Utah Pioneers, and the league was in serious trouble. The Miami Tribe folded. The commissioner, Rex Lardner, said that they were considering shutting down the league. The Washington Marauders, who were a late addition to the league to begin with, threatened to cease operations by the end of the week if the league didn’t provide adequate financial arrangements. Remember those plans that said that the league needed each team to average at least 20,000 fans per game to survive? Less than three weeks before the season, and Washington had sold 100 season tickets. One hundred. I’m shocked that the team that was announced hastily in a market with lots of competition already and in a market where the USFL failed miserably could barely sell 100 season tickets.
And, as it turns out, nobody got any money. Washington wide receivers coach Brian Gardner said he was owed $5,000, and never got it, stating that “I have as much chance of getting that as I do of catching the clouds in my hands right now.” The league lied when they said that it had $50 million in the bank; only a small percentage of that was actually in the bank. The schedule, set to start on February 29, was in danger of getting pushed back two weeks. And the Marauders were running an awful operation:
The Marauders operation is tight. All the equipment is in Room 131 of the team's headquarters here, a Quality Inn. The shoulder pads are piled atop two beds; face bars sit on a table. Other pads and several jerseys are in the bathroom.
[Cornerback] Barry Wilburn kept his football shoes on after the morning practice today. That was because the tape he'd bought and used to anchor the shoes to his feet had run out. There was no tape for anyone. Until the season starts, players are responsible for their own football shoes. They pay their way to training camp -- and their way home if cut.
One week later, the league folded. On February 19, 1992, the PSFL shut down operations, and never played a single game. And thus, another professional football league collapsed. Considering the lack of name recognition or the lack of a TV deal, and considering the WLAF already happening in the spring of 1992 while this league was trying to get underway, I’m not sure many people noticed that this league died. But it goes to show you that trying to start a football league in five months is usually a bad idea.
Previous Posts
History of the United Football League (2009-2012)
History of the Spring Football League (2000)
History of the Fall Experimental Football League (2013-2015)
History of the Stars Football League (2011-2013)
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This is because minus sign shows us the Lakers are 5.5 favorites. To win for betting purposes they must win by at least six points. On the other side, the plus sign tells us the Rockets are a 5.5 point underdog. Thus, Rockets bettors win if the Rockets win the game outright or lose by less than 5.5 points. For NBA point spread betting, more Cross-multiply to get 130x = 4000, and then solve for “x” x= 4000/130; x = 30.77; Therefore, if you wager $40 on Pittsburgh, you will win $30.77, and your return would be $70.77 (your original wager plus your winnings). Now that you understand what the plus and minus signs represent, it’s time to talk about the meat of the issue: what the numbers mean. To understand this, think of everything in terms of $100. If you’re betting on the Marlins in the example above, you’d have to put up $130 to win an extra $100. These spreads are directly related to how points are scored in football such as a field goal (three points) or a touchdown (seven, assuming a successful one-point conversion). The three main key numbers in NFL point spread betting are 3, 7 and 10, representing a field goal, a touchdown or a field goal plus a touchdown. Again you’ll see the plus and minus symbols, but with smaller denominations. For example, say Team A is shown at -7, and Team B at +7. If you placed a bet on Team A, the team would have to win the game by eight or more points. Betting on Team B would win you your bet if the team wins the game, OR if it loses by less than six points.

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